Anatomy 2 - Ruminant Head

drraythe's version from 2015-06-05 23:00


Question Answer
2 basic portions of frontal sinus bovine? how many compartments?rostral (2 or 3 compartments) and caudal (large, single compartment)
what is clinically significant about the caudal frontal sinus?it sends a cornual (horn) diverticulum into cornual process of frontal bone...(may extend into neighboring bones with age)
what are the rostral and caudal frontal sinuses separated by?oblique septum
what is the process by which you can access to drain a sinus? where is it usually performed?trephining/trephination.... usually caudal to the oblique septum
what can be fractured to provide more complete drainage?septa/trabeculae
two sinuses of small ruminants? which is bigger/smaller? where are they?medial (smaller), lateral (larger). they occupy only the frontal bone
what sinus can be described as a single invagination?maxillary sinus
where is the opening of the maxillary sinus? what does is communicate with?slit-like opening in the nasomaxillary aperture. communicates with the nasal cavity (middle meatus)
where is the maxillary sinus in relation to the opening of the nasomaxillary aperture?most of the sinus is ventral to the opening
where can cheek teeth embed? in the floor of the maxillary sinus
what structure does the maxillary sinus extend into? clinical prob?extends into lacrimal bulla (thin walled and beneath the eye) (can be damaged in eye enucleation)
what sinuses are diverticula of the maxillary sinus? lacrimal and palatine sinuses
what are the different conchae of the pig? why do we care?dorsal nasal, ventral nasal, ethmoidal conchae. need to know conformation so you can see deformity caused by atrophic rhinitis
what is atrophic rhinitis?path. condition in pigs which causes nasal conchae degeneration. usually piglets.
why do we care about the frontal sinus of pigs? how would you describe this sinus?frontal sinus relates to humane slaughter of pigs. it is expansive, and covers the cranium
another name for upper lip of ox? description of it? how is it useful to humans?nasolabiale plate. it's firm, delicate grooves/ridges/pits, no hair. relatively nonmobile + nonsensitive. the nasolabiale plate has unique markings and can be used to ID cow through "nose printing"
another name for small rumi upper lip? description? median fissure called?planum nasale. thinner and more mobile, fine hair covered. groove is the PHILTRUM
what is the bone the pig nose contains? what is is used for?os rostri aka rostral bone. used for rooting- it is powerful and sensitive.
what is unique about pig lower liplower lip is pointed
what is unique about the pig upper lip, why is it like that?has a permanent VENTROLATERAL NOTCH, for canine tooth to project out of the mouth.
what is the oral mucosa like in the rumi and pig? what complications may arise from this?thick, strat.squa. epithelium with HEAVY STRATUM CORNEUM...causess mucosa to be insensitive, so theyll eat whatever = hardware disease
what is unique about the oral mucosa of lips and cheeks of ruminants? is there a particular region this is especially true?contain backward pointed macroscopic [buccal] papillae, esp. in region of commissures of mouth
what is in a rumi dentition instead of upper incisiors and canine teeth? another name for it, the structures of it?dental pad (pulvinus dentatus), heavily cornified epithelium with a tough/dense lamina propria underneath
what is the dental formula of a rumi? (permanent set)? total # teeth?i0/3 - C0/1 - P3/3 - M3/3 and x2 for 32 total [remember: never goes above three. account for dental pad. so a bunch of threes and zeros, plus one lonely canine]
which teeth are brachydont? purpose? which teeth are hypsodont? purpose?brachy= incisor and canine (cropping)..... hypso = premolars and molars (grinding)
what is between incisor teeth and cheek teeth?a long diastema
do upper and lower teeth align? what is it called?no. ANISOGNATHIC
what is the canine regarded as in a rumi?as an incisior
how do you list incisors from the center out?central incisor( 1st), first intermediate incisors, second intermediate incisor, and corner incisor (actually a canine)
what does it mean when a tooth is "level"? when the LINGUAL surface of the permanent incisor teeth is round and smooth (NO NOTCH)
which cheek teeth have which # roots?upper cheek teeth= 3 roots. lower= 2 roots
what is unique about the occlusal surfaces of the cheek teeth?they have well defined ridges
LOOK AT occlusal surface teeth chartneed to ID shit
what is it called when older animals' teeth drop out? when the incisors are gone?unthriftiness....once incisors gone, it's "broken mouth" or "gummers"
eruption times for GOAT? for I1, I2, I3, and C?I1= 1.5 years, I2= 2 years, I3= 2.5 years, C= 3 years
eruption times for a cattle? for I1-3 and C?later than sm. rumis I1= 1.5-2years I2= 2-2.5 years I3= 3years C= 3.5-4 years
as incisors wear, what appears? describe it?an occlusal surface appears, the lingual surface of the occlusal surface is notched (due to enamel ridges on lingual surface of tooth)
rates of leveling of incisors in cattle of I1-3 and CI1= 6yrs I2= 7yrs I3= 8yrs C= 9yrs
what is distinct about the rumi tongue?dorsal caudal portion has mound "torus linguae" separated from rostral portion by "fossa linguae"
describe the teeth of the pig. what are the incisors like?brachydont teeth except canines, those are hypsodont. incisors are small and project rostrally for GRUBBING in soil
dental formula of pig?2( I3/3, C1/1, P4/4, M3/3) = 44 [remember: 31-43= 1-4 with three on each side is a lot of bacon]
whats up with pig canines?grow continuously, used for offence and defense, can be used for restraining boar OR be cut off.
what teeth are removed in piggletts, and why?needle teeth, to avoid damage to dam's mammary gland and other piglets
what are some structures of pig cheek teeth?have rounded cusps/tubercles on table for crushing and grinding
what type of papillae are noteable on dorsal rumi tongue, what is a name for them?filiform papillae...lg and keratinized, create "lingual rasp"
what structure is on neonatal (up to 18days) piglets tongue?marginal papillae (lateral, lace-like frills) might help in suckling
how much saliva can a cattle produce in a day?30-50L
2 main groups of salivary glands in rumi?buccal glands and large, discrete glands.
where are the buccal salivary glands? structure of gland, and where it is histologically?scattered throughout mouth, tubulo-alveolar glands, under mucous membrane of mouth in the three main layers (dorsal, middle, and ventral)
where is the sublingual gland? how many parts? ducts?floor of mouth under sublingual fold, from mandibular symphysis to last cheek tooth, between body of mandible and tongue. 2 parts with separate ducts except in the horse
what are the two parts of the sublingual gland, describe themPOLYSTOMATIC= several ducts opening into mouth. ROSTRAL/MAJOR MONOSTOMATIC= single duct opening close to sublingual caruncle or joins mandibular duct
other two salivary glands aside from buccal and sublingual? what are they like?parotid and mandibular like horse and dog ones.
how is the hyoid process different in rumis as compared to a dogs?basihyoid has knob-shaped lingual process in rumis
unique structure of pharynx in pigs?/pharyngeal diverticulum/ is a median pouch dorsal of beginning of esophagus (dont accidentally syringe meds here)
unique structure of larynx in pigs?LATERAL VENTRICLES of into rima glottidis, face rostrally (PROB with tracheal intubation)
where is the parotid LN? describe it. where does it drain?under cranial part of parotid salivary gland, single and Lg in rumis, drains eyes,ears,lips,superficial mm of head, skin of head. efferents go to RETROPHARYNGEAL LYMPHOCENTER
where is the mandibular lymphnode? what does it drain? how many (species diff)?ventral angle of jaw, drains ventral half of head and rostral part of mouth and apex of tongue, and all areas not drained by parotid LN. usually 2-- however, maybe single in rumi, SEVERAL in PIG
what are the two deep drainage LNs of the head?medial retropharyngeal LN, Lateral retropharyngeal LN
where is the medial retropharyngeal LN? how many? what does it drain?lies between cranium and pharynx. RUMI= large and single. PIG= multiple. DRAINS most deep structures of the head (nasal, oral, laryna, jaw, etc)
what is clinically important about the medial retropharyngeal LN?if englarged, can cause dyspnea and dysphagia
where is the lateral retropharyngeal LN? how many?ventral to wing of atlas and dorsal to larynx and pharynx. Single and large.
what does the lateral retropharyngeal LN drain? what is its duct?drains everything incld. other LNs. MASTER LN OF THE HEAD in RUMINANTS. (compare to dog, horse, pig which is the medial retro. LN). forms the TRACHEAL DUCT (on lateral wall of carotid sheath)
what are the 5 possible nerves to innervate the rumi. horn? (4/5 are trigeminal in origin)cornual n, cornual branch of infratrochlear n, frontal n, cutaneous branches of C1 and C2 spinal nerves (?), nerve of the frontal sinus.
what is the MAIN nerve of the horn?cornual nerve
where is the cornual nerve palpated and therefore blocked?mid-way between orbit and base of horn
where is the cornual branch of the infratrochlear n.?dorsal rim of orbit, close to medial canthus of eye, over frontal bone, towards base of horn (reaches base in 80% of cattle)
how do you block the cornual branch of the infratrochlear n.?vertical line of of anasthetic infiltration OR at rim of orbit, independently.
where is the frontal nerve? how man cattle have it reach the horn?leaves orbit, runs over dorsal rim of orbit, toward horn (14% of cattle)
what is noteable about the nerve of the frontal sinus?too deep to be blocked
how would you block the horn, then?complete anasthesia of the horn is impossible EXCEPT by general anesthesia
Three nerves innervating the horn in the GOAT? basically where they are?(1) cornual n (ca border of base of zygo. process at frontal bone). (2) cornual branch of infratrochlear (dorsal border of orbit, over medial canthus of eye). (3) great auricular n. (from C2 spinal nerve)
which molar 1 is bigger?left

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