Anatomy 2 - Poultry

drraythe's version from 2015-06-05 23:19

Lecture 1

Question Answer
ratites are?flightless, usually running-type birds
anseriformes are?waterfowl (ducks answer the call for scary phalluses)
galliformes are?poultry (chicken, turkey, peacock, pheasant, etc) (remember: chicken is gallus gallus)
modern chickens scientific name?gallus gallus domesticus
more proficient egg laying hen breed?white leghorn (300+ eggs a year)
what is a broiler? most common one?meat chicken. cornish-rock hybrid. ready to slaughter in ~5weeks!
"broody" chicken?silky
meat turkey breed? size?broad-breasted white turkey...up to >50lbs!
prob with broad-breasted white turkey breeding?need artificial insemination
psittaciformes are?parrots (parrots psitt on your shoulder)
passeriformes are?song birds
sphpenisciformes are?penguins
falconiformes are?birds of prey--- hawks/eagles/etc
columbiformes are?pigeons and doves (statue of colombus covered in pigeons)
strigiformes are?owls
penguins have what?kneecaps!
what bird retained sense of smell?kiwi
largest group of birds?passeriformes-- song birds

Lecture 2

Question Answer
cr and ca border of wings are called (respectively) leading and trailing edge
what is pneumatization?how bird bones are made light (hollow, cancellous like)
how many occipital condyles in a bird?1
word for increasing gape of bird?craniokinesis
how is craniokinesis done? (bone/joint/direction?) quadrate bone rotates when mouth opening, pushes upper beak dorsally at CRANIOFACIAL HINGE
unique eye structure in skull of owls?scleral ossicles form sclerotic ring (tube like structure)
2 unique things about cervical region of birds?VARIABLE # cervical verts!! (12-25), CERVICAL RIBS
what is a notarium? fused vertebra of the shoulder in birds
what is the weak point of a birds back?the few thoracic verts that arent fused-- "kinky back"/kyphosis
what is an uncinate process of a rib?which can be separate bones or projections from ribs. An uncinate process on a rib overlaps the rib posterior to it, providing bracing to the rib cage.
what is the syn sacrum? fused ca thoracic/lumbar/sacral verts plus ilia
what is a pygostyle?fusion of last few (3-6) caudal verts
what birds lack a keel? ratites
purposes of keel?support for viscera, attachment for large flight mm
what bones create supporting struts for flight?coracoid bones
what is furcula?fused clavicles "wishbone"
glenoid cavity formed by?coracoid and scapula
what and where is the triosseal canal?made of scapula and coracoid bone for supracoracoideus m tendon to go through
what m is responsible for upstroke of wing? (helper?)supercoradoideus (deltoid)
what mm for downstroke of wings?pecs
m for folding wing?lats
which is bigger- radius or ulna?ulna is Larger
digit 1 of bird is...(digit 2? 3?)alula (claw in some)... (2= major. 3=minor)
where do primary flight feathers attach? secondary?1*= carpometacarpus and digits. 2*= antebrachium
word for what you do to prevent flight? precaution?pinioning. MUST DO BOTH SIDES
why do ducks waddle?birds have an antitrochanter which prevents abduction
how would you be able to tell which digit is which in the pelvic limb?each digit has one more phalanx than its number (digits 1-4)
what is the spur?tarsometatarus-- calcaris process (calcar) modified epidermal projection
how does the perching mechanism work?when its legs are flexed, tarsus flexed, tightens //DDF// tendon, flexes digits, then bird can sleep bc its legs are locked up
what is the one thing all birds have in common?feathers!
what ARE feathers? fxns of feathers?tubular extensions of skin. Fxn: insulation, flight, nest building material, courtship/aggression displays
where do we think birds came from (evolutionarily)?small feathered dinosaurs.
3 main types of feathers?contour(cover body of adult, wings, tail), plumules(dont interlock no rigid rachus), filoplumes(hair-like, "tufted bristles")
how is stealth flying done?soft edge of the feathers
flight feathers of the wing are? of the tail?remiges. retrices. (sounds like "gimmiethese" , grab with wings)
what is the word for the quill of the feather? what are the names of the two holes in it? (what is the other part above the quill?)Calamus. Distal (sup.) umbilicus. Proximal (inf) umbilicus. (Rachis) [you can eat calamari with a calamus]
what is apteriya? why do we care?poorly feathered areas. Surgical incisions should be made here.
what is pterylae?the feather tracts
how do birds replace their feathers?they molt. usually 1x a year.
where are new feathers produced?in a feather follicle (inverted tube of skin)
what is a brooding patch?area on ventral abdomen where feathers might be plucked to allow for better heat xchange to eggs.
special breeds of chicken have been bred to be sexed by their feathers. what is the technique?Females coverts are shorter than their primary flight feathers. Male- coverts long as or longer than filghts
where do birds store fat?in their thin skin which is loosely attached in most areas.
7 fleshy appendages of head?Comb, waddles, earlobes, ricti (fleshy area around mouth), snood (part that hangs from beak), dewlap (skin fold at neck area), caruncles (cover entire head/neck)
what is the rhamphotheca? noteable portion of it?(BEAK) heavily keratinized sheath that covers the jaws. it grows continuously and might need to be trimmed. cutting edge is "tomia"
rule for debeaking?no more than 1/3 of upper beak (from tip to nares)
2 parts of rhamphotheca in waterfowl? purpose?LAMELLAE-- ridges-- filter food. NAIL (maxillary and mandibular)
what is a cere?waxy structure covering base of bill. can be used to sex certain species.
name for the preening gland? purpose?uropygial gland (uropygial papillae) with two paired glands/ducts, sebaceous secretion. help in waterproofing!

Lecture 3

Question Answer
what is patagium?wing web. (play pattycake with the patagium)
what is pinioning?tenectomy of extensor carpi radialis
what does NOT extend from extensor fossa of femur?long digital extensor
what is the tibial cartilage? what passes over it? what passes through it?fibrocartilagenous pad lies over plantar surface of tibiotarsus. gastroc/sdf go over it, DDF go THROUGH it.
where is there a meniscus in the pelvic limb of the bird?lateral menescus of intertarsal joint
what joint flexes to cause rest of flexion in leg? what could this be called?the tarsus. a reciprocal apparatus. **cannot extend digits when tarsus is flexed
instead of teeth, birds have...tomia of rhampotheca
papillae in oropharanx?caudally directed mechanical papillae
how would you describe bird saliva?thick and sticky
what is the choana?physiological cleft palate
opening of auditory tubes is?infundibular opening
what is their "larynx"?laryngeal mound
where is the esophagus in relation to the trachea?RIGHT SIDE!!
esophagus dilates near thoracic inlet. known as?ingluvies!! (crop)
purpose of crop/ingluvies?temp storage of food, produce crop milk to feed babies
describe carnivorous-type stomach?proventriculus(glandular) and ventriculus(thin walled muscular)....designed more for storage and chemical break down than mechanical break down.
what produces HCl and pepsin in stomach?oxynticopeptic cells.
what is a pellet?regurgitated fur, bones, etc of meal. (regurg 6-10 hrs after meal)
describe non-carnivorous type of bird stomach?prventriculus(glands)+ventriculous(muscular! dark colored due to lots of myoglobin) connected via isthmus.
in non-carnivorous ventriculous, which parts are thick/thin? what is the protective liner called?cr and ca sacs thinner, middle (dorsal and ventral) portions thick... KOILIN= cuticle
where is the pancreas?in duodenal loop (between ascending and descending limbs)
how can you tell the jejunum from the ileum?vitelline (meckels) diverticulum is there, its where the yolk used to be attached.
what about the cecum of a bird? unique things?ITS CECA-- as in paired! Usually pretty long (but absent in psittacine (parrots) birds and short in pigeon) at the base of the ceca are CECAL TONSILS. ceca for fermentation/water absorption
how many bile ducts? names?2. hepatoenteric, cystoenteric
lobes of liver? gall bladder?L and R lobes. Gallbladder connected to R lobe.
3 parts of cloaca/separations and the external opening?corpodeum(poop), urodeum(pee, also gets ductus deferens/oviduct) <--these separated by coprourodeal fold. also proctodeum (repro stuff happens here). Opening=VENT
what are bird nares protected by? what can nares be surrounded by in some species? shelf-like operculum protects. can be surrounded by cere.
how does nasal cavity communiate with oropharynx?choana
whats up with the infraorbital sinus?communicates with caudal conchae. Subject to infections.
what is up with the nasal gland?gland dorsal to orbit. opens into nasal cavity. "SALT GLAND" which allows certain birds to drink salt water and then secrete a hypertonic solution of salt from it so they dont dehydrate
what is the laryngeal mound formed by?cricoid and aryetnoid cartilages
unique about trachea?COMPLETE CARTILAGE RINGS (shape or conformation of trachea changes based on species)
what is the syrinx? where is it? gender diff?source of vocalization! at tracheal bifurcation. tympaniform membranes are vibrated to make sounds. BULLA portion is a big bulge that dampens their sound (on L principal bronchus)
what holds lungs in place?horizontal septum
two parts of lung are? relative amt?paleopulmo(old-90%) and neopulmo (new-10%)
describe setup of paleopulmoarranged in arch-like connecting loops between 2 secondary bronchi-- ONE WAY FLOW
describe setup of neopulmonetwork of anastomosing bronchi- TWO WAY FLOW though parabronchi
what do parabronchi of lungs represent?"tertiary bronchi"
order of spaces from lumen of parabronchi are?atria-->infundibula-->air capillaries (heart funneling blood)
what are air sacs? what do they do?thin walled extensions of resp system-- aid in mvmt of air through lung (NO GAS XCHANGE HERE).
how many air sacs in chicken? where?8. There is clavicular, cervical, cranial thoracic(2), caudal thoracic (2), abdominal (2)
which air sacs are associated with which type of lung?paleopulmo= cranial air sacs= (clavicular, cervical, cr thoracic). Neopulmo= caudal air sacs= (caudal thoracic, abdominal)
what part of bird gets first-pass fresh air, and how?the caudal air sacs via expressway bronchi
type of air cranial air sacs get?semi-used because it passed through parabronchi already.
how is it that birds get gas exchange during inhalation and exhalation?air goes through lungs (or bypasses) on inspiration, go into air sacs, on expiration the air in airsacs is passed through the lungs again for more exchange (some used, some unused)

Lecture 4

Question Answer
how is the kidney divided?NOT LOBES. Cr. Ca. and middle DIVISIONS (divided by arteries) cr and middle separated by exernal iliac. middle and ca separated by ischiadic
collecting system of bird kidney works how?collecting duct forms cone shaped bundle to drain one lobule--> bundles unite to form secondary branch of ureter to drain one "lobe"-->secondary branches join to form primary branch of ureter--> primary branches plug into ureter and head for outside of body
what does bird kidney lack?NO RENAL PELVIS
what can birds do in regards to urine to reclaim more water?after urine from ureter deposited into urodeum, it can be moved via retrograde peristalsis back into rectum/ceca (...dude.)
what is unique about the blood supply to the kidney in a bird? modulatory apparatus? clinical sig?they have a RENAL PORTAL SYSTEM! can filter venous blood of lower body. Amount filtered moderated by renal portal VALVE in COMMON ILIAC (will bypass kidney if this is tight). CLINICALLY, DONT INJECT MEDS INTO LOWER LIMBS (they will just filter it out right away)
testes change how? neutering info?LARGE during breeding season. otherwise small. remove testes for "capron" (capronization) meat at a restaurant.
bird epididimyus is not____?divided into head/body/tail (is very convoluted tho)
ductus deferens are?highly looped
copulatory organ of male bird? types?PHALUS (NOT PENIS) -- protrusible and non-protrusible
non-protrusible phallus parts? how does it work?median phallic tubercle. Lateral phallic bodies. lymphatic folds. (during sex, protrudes slightly from vent. grooves between tubercle and bodies form "semen gutters". pressed against female cloaca.)
protrusible phallus works how?phallic groove spirals around spiral organ to direct semen.
WHICH OVARY/OVIDUCT PERSISTS IN A FEMALE BIRD?THE LEFT STAYS (right degenerates) (The left is left behind when the right leaves)
follicle wall is _________ and ___thin and vascular
follicle is filled with ___ and the baby devolops from what which is where?yolk filled follicle with germinal disc attached to surface
just prior to ovulation, follicle form a what? why?a stigma (avascular zone) where it can tear along this line to ovulate without blood loss.
when does insemination of the egg take place?immediately following ovulation, semen is brought up from "storage tank" in vagina
parts of oviduct, in order?(ovary)--->infundibulum-> magnum-> isthmus->uterus->vagina
what happens in infundibulum?coated with dense layer of albumin called "chalaziferous layer" which later because the chalaza
what is the chalaza, what does it do?thin layer of dense albumin (looks like a little white blob in a cracked egg) which prevents egg from rotating in any direction except for longitudinally.
what happens in the magnum?longest part of oviduct. Secretes albumin (inner more liquid, outer more gel)
what happens in the isthmus?outer most albumin added, inner and outer SHELL MEMBRANES added
what happens in the uterus?ovum spends 20 hrs here making a hard shell, also albumin is pumped in to "plump up" the egg. lastly is a thin cuticle to protect shell and contents
time spend in each portion of oviduct? summar of fxn?infund (15min)(chalaza), magnum (3hr)(albumen), isthmus (1 hr)(shell membranes), uterus (20 hr)(shell/cuticle), vagina (seconds)

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