Anatomy 2 - Equine Hindlimb mm, nn, aa, vv

drraythe's version from 2015-06-05 23:24


Question Answer
how much BW does the hind limb bear?45%
which limb is more likely to be injured? forelimb
*what is the major extensor of the hip joint?middle gluteal
what does the middle gluteal blend with, and why?with longissimus lumborum (for rearing)
what are the parts of the superficial gluteal?cr and ca
describe whats up with the accessory glutealit's part of the middle gluteal with a distinct insertion tendon
innervation of the gluteal mm?Cr gluteal nn EXCEPT ca part of sup. gluteal is ca gluteal n
what mm are included in the hamstring mm?biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus
what is responsible for the rounding/filling of croup/ rump of the horse?the hamstring mm possess vertebral heads
action of the hamstrings? flexors of the stifle and extensors of the hock
what innervates the hamstrings?branches of the sciatic/ischiatic n
actions of the hamstrings in bearing weightmostly in terms of biceps femoris: extend (he wrote this, not me) stifle/hock, little overextension of the stifle and rotation of the patella to unlock it
where are the extensors of the digits and flexors of the hock located on the crus? what are they innervated by?cranio-lateral, by the common peroneal nerve (deep peroneal n)
where are the flexors of the digits and extensors of the hock located on the crus? what are they innervated by?caudo-medial, by the tibial nerve
which mm of the crus are esp. tendinous?PERONEUS TERTIUS, sup. digital flexor, deep digital flexor, INTEROSSUES
what 3 purposes does having tendinous mm of the leg serve?(he emphasizes peroneus tertius) (1) supporting the joints (2) weight bearing w/less mm activity (3) prevent overextension of the joints
what are the 6 components of the calcaneal tendon?(1) biceps femoris (2) gracilis (3) gastrocnemius (4) semitendinosus (5) sup. digital flexor (6) +/- soleus (BSGSG - Big Slut GobStopper God)
where are the calcaneal bursae located? (3)(1) calcaneus and gastrocnemius (2) gastroc and sup. digital flexor (3) sup. digital flexor and skin (may or may not be present)
what is capped hock?when one, two, or three of the calcaneal bursae are inflamed
where is the trochanteric bursa? what is the dz associated with it?synovial bursa present between the Cr part of the greater trochanter and aponeurotic attachment of the accessory gluteal mm. If the bursa becomes inflamed, it is trochanteric bursitis (usually due to prolonged pressure/injury)


Question Answer
**What is the major artery of the hindlimb?femoral artery
what does the femoral a branch into?saphenous a and the popliteal a (<--continuation of the femoral)
what point does the femoral becomes the popliteal?ca aspect of stifle, b/w heads of the gastroc
what does the popliteal divide into?cr and ca tibial.
what does the cr tibial divide into?dorsal pedal a (--> perforating tarsal a) and then the dorsal metatarsal a III (it becomes this at the hock)
**What is the largest/main artery of the foot?dorsal metatarsal a III / great metatarsal a
how does the ca tibial a end?joins saphenous a at sigmoid anastomosis
What does the saphenous a divide into?M+L plantar aa
where are the M+L plantar aa located?superficially in the plantar grooves, along the digital flexor tendons
*what is the deep plantar arch formed by?perforating tarsal a, and branches of the M+L plantar aa
what arises from the deep plantar arch?M+L plantar METATARSAL arteries
*what forms the superficial plantar arch?L+M plantar aa, L+M plantar metatarsal aa, M+L plantar proper digital aa
what does the dorsal metatarsal a III divide into?divide into M+L plantar proper digital aa
what forms the terminal arch in P3?the dorsal and plantar branches of the M+L plantar proper digital aa
look at the damn flow chartsfack

veins+lymph drainage

Question Answer
which veins are satellites to the arteries?deep veins
*what are the three most important and prominent superficial veins of the hindlimb?(1) dorsal metatarsal v II / dorsal common digital vein II (2) medial saphenous v (3) femoral v
*major vein draining the pes?dorsal common digital vein II
what (and where) forms the major tributaries of the digital vv?highly developed network of veins in the -hoof dermis- forms the VENOUS PLEXUSES
what is the major lymphocenter of the hindlimb? where do its efferents go?popliteal lymphocenter (several nodes in the popliteal fossa) drain part of limb distal to it. Efferents go to the deep inguinal nodes


Question Answer
*What are the main nerves of the hindlimb? (5)FEMORAL, OBTURATOR, SCIATIC, tibial, common peroneal
*what is the distal hindlimb mainly innervated by?tibial (plantar) and common peroneal (dorsal) nn
what does the common peroneal nn divide into?sup. and deep peroneal nn
what does the superficial peroneal n supply? where?supplies long+lateral digital extensor mm and skin of lateral part of leg, on the dorsolateral part of limb
what are the terminal branches of the deep peroneal n?M+L dorsal metatarsal nn (tho his flow chart says they terminate at the M+L dorsal digital nn)
what does the M+L dorsal metatarsal nn supply?skin and joints in distal limb
what does the deep peroneal supply?deeper part of dorsal face of limb, twigs/branches to cranio-lateral group of muscles. becomes entirely sensory thereafter (divides to M+L dorsal metatarsal which supply skin/joints in distal limb)
where can the tibial nerve be palpated? (how does it travel?)it passes distally between heads of the gastroc in the popliteal region, and can be PALPATED CR to common calcaneal tendon above the hock.
what does the tibial n supply?ca group of crus mm, and at the level of the hock becomes sensory
where and what does the tibial n divide into?just ca to calcaneus divides into M+L plantar nn.
where are the M+L plantar nn located? something to note about them?located superficially in the plantar grooves, along the digital flexor tendons. There is a LATEROVENTRAL COMMUNICATING BRANCH between the 2 nerves midway in the tarsus
what are the deep structures on the plantar aspect of the limb innervated by? this nerve originates from what?M+L plantar metatarsal nn, which originate from the lateral plantar n by a common trunk/deep branch, in the plantar groove
how do the M+L plantar nn run? (more specifically)course distally on either side of the DDF along with the vessels, then on the sides of the prox sesamoids and cr to sup. digital flexor tendon after becoming the M+L plantar digital nn
what do the M+L plantar nn turn into?M+L plantar proper digital nn
where does the common peroneal n and the tibial n come from?the sciatic n
Oh gee, maybe look at the flow charts and crapdying forever
**main nerve supply to the distal hindlimb?common peroneal nn (dorsal), and tibial nn (plantar)
**nerve supply to the PLANTAR ASPECT BELOW THE HOCK JOINT? (main and others)Main= TIBIAL. then the L+M plantar nn and L+M plantar metatarsal, then L+M plantar proper digital nerves
**nerve supply to the DORSAL ASPECT BELOW THE HOCK JOINT?L+M dorsal metatarsal nn (branches of L deep peroneal n) and L+M dorsal digital nerves (continuation of latter on each side), then dorsal branches of L+M plantar proper digital nn, and superficial peroneal n (up to the fetlock)