Anatomy 2 - Equine Forelimb Osteology

martinezdvm's version from 2015-10-29 19:37


Question Answer
Two of the major purposes of the forelimbs is?(1) WEIGHT BEARING. Allows them to stand/bear (excessive) weight for a long amount of time (2) landing/shock absorption (think dorsoscap ligament)
What is important to know about the spine of the scapula?IT LACKS AN ACROMION PROCESS
What is the bump/flat area in the middle of the spine of the scapula?the tuber spinae
What is the 'knee' of the horse?The carpus
What does the lack of an acromion process mean for the horse?more at risk for sweeny (damage to suprascapular nerve)
where is the coracoid process?near the articular surface of the scapula, next to the supraglenoid tuberosity (coracoid comes off of it and is smaller)
What does the coracobrachialis attach to on the scapula?coracoid process-- the mm is well developed so the process is well developed too
how would you describe the shaft of the humerus?twisted
which side is the greater tubercle on?lateral
what structures are on the proximal part of the humerus? (5)greater tubercle, lesser tubercle, intermediate tubercle with the intertubercler groove, and the head of the humerus
what is the "bump" on the middle of the shaft of the humerus, and the concavity under that?deltoid tuberosity, and part of the brachial (musculospiral) groove
How are the greater/lesser tubercles divided? How are they located in relation to the head of the humerus?Cr and Ca parts of both Greater and Lesser. Cr parts are toward the head.
which side of the distal humerus do the extensors attach? Flexors? (L or M)Extensors lateral, flexors medial
what is the area between the two condyles of the distal humerus?the trochlea
unique about the biceps brachii tendon running through the bicipital groove?Its tendon is practically cartilage
what does the intermediate tubercle do?divides the intertubercular groove into 2 distinct parts
articular surface of the humerus?trochlea
what to know about the relationship of the radius and the ulna?they are fused
how many interosseus spaces of the radius/ulna?only one
is there knocked kneed stance in the horse?no, all carpus are at the same level
how would you describe the ulna of the horse?Ill developed, only up to distal 1/3 of of radius
distal ends of radius/ulna are called?M and L styloid process
Structures of the olecranon?olecranon tuberosity, anconeal process, coronoid proces, trochlear notch
what is the check ligament? where? Function?accessory lig of SDF & DDF (there are two on the caudal surface of radius). It is so the mm doesn't come off the bone too far (stability)
What is in the musculospiral groove (brachial groove) of the humerus?brachialis, radial n.
compare phalanges of hind limb vs fore limb?hind limb slightly longer (same for the tarsal bones)
medial proximal carpal bone is?radial carpal bone
accessory carpal has what function?attachment for flexors
is the accessory carpal medial or lateral?Lateral, next to the small ulnar carpal
what are the bones of the distal row of carpal bones, from lateral to medial?4, 3, 2, and a super tiny little bump of a 1
what are the bones of the proximal row of carpal bones, from lateral to medial?(accessory is on lateral side behind the others) ulnar, intermediate, radial.
how does the accessory carpal relate to the others?not attached, it articulates
main purpose of prox row of carpal bones? How does shape play into this?STABILITY, so look like building blocks. (helps with bearing weight, landing, prevention of over-extension of carpus)
what are the splint bones?MC 2+4 (If you see a splint bone, in lab, specify if of hind or forelimb)
How would you describe the top of the metacarpal bone? Tarsal?M= "D" shaped. T= "O" shaped (you grab the "D" with your hands & he goes "O" as he shakes his feet)
distal portion of the splint bones are called? why to we care?"buttons" for palpating for injection areas
metacarpal bone IV aka the?lateral splint bone
metalcarpal bone II aka the?medial splint bone
Thickening of joint capsules of carpus/top of metacarpus is what?(where lots of tendons running) palmar carpal ligament!
how does the palmar carpal ligament affect mvt?it prevents overextension/collapse of the carpus
what makes up the carpal canal?accessory carpal bone, flexor retinaculum and palmar carpal lig (see pic)