Anatomy 2 - Equine Female Repro

drraythe's version from 2015-06-05 22:53


Question Answer
where is the location of the ovary?sublumbar (L4-L5) close to abdominal roof (ovaries crap out around 45yrs old)
suspensory ligament associated with the ovary? describe its propertiesthick, long and mobile mesovarium (suspensory lig of ovary on its cr border)
how big is the horse ovary?very large (up to 9cm)= largest and longest of domestic species
shape of the ovary? distinct landmarks on it?Bean shaped. Fairly SMOOTH surface. Marked concavity on ventral, non-peritoneal side. The depression= OVULATION FOSSA/ OVARIAN FOSSA
what is a peculiar equine feature of the ovary? (constant structure)ovulation fossa
describe the follicles of the ovary of the horsethey are DEEP in the ovary, project only SLIGHTLY above surface, but are quite large (7cm, 50-80mL fluid)
describe the zones of the horse ovaryREVERSED. the "cortex" is the PARENCHYMATOUS ZONE on the INSIDE and the "medulla" is the VASCULAR ZONE on the OUTSIDE
where is the parenchymatous zone? (of the ovary)INSIDE of ovary
where is the vascular zone? (of the ovary)OUTSIDE of ovary
what is a peculiar equine feature of the ovary? (during preg.)at abt 40 days preg, a new set of follicles devolops, and form a new corpora lutea (secondary corpora lutea) which persists with primary ones until abt day150 of preg, when they regress (b/c preg can be maintaind after this time)
what is a secondary corpora lutea?at abt 40 days preg, a new set of follicles devolops, and form a new corpora lutea. Help maintain preg.
what is the ovarian bursa? how would you describe it? Where is its opening?shallow. peritoneal pocket. VENTRAL opening.
boundaries of the ovarian bursa? (M, L, Cr, Ca?)M= proper lig of ovary+peritoneum. L= mesosalpinx. Cr= ovary + mesosalpinx. Ca= uterine horn
the distal (to uterus) portion of the uterine tube is _____, and its end is called the ____ because it is shaped like a ____fimbriated (finger like projections). It is called the infundibulum because it is funnel shaped
what are the 3 parts of the uterine tube, in order from ovary to horn of uterus?Infundibulum, ampulla, isthmus
how would you describe the ampulla and isthmus of the uterine tube?coiled
how does the uterine tube join the uterine horn? structures here? Describe mucosa here.join abruptly at a sphinctered papilla at UTEROTUBAL JXN. Mucosa are thrown into longitudinal folds (also secondary and tertiary folds)
which part of the path from ovary to uterus might determine if they get pregnant or not?the uterotubal jxn
describe the shape, location, and oviductal end of the uterine horns of the horsebicornuate, T-shaped arrangement with a rounded and blunt oviductal end.
name and describe the ligaments associated with the uterine horns (2)horns have a relatively short, sublumbar suspension by Broad Ligament. The Round Ligament is a remnant which projects of the broad lig laterally
describe the mucosa of the uterine horns (overall, special structures?)uniform mucosa (b/c placenta is diffuse), with slightly raised areas/rings (endometrial cups)
explain the endometrial cups (shape, location, timing, purpose)slightly raised areas/rings (~3cm diameter) which are more obvious in EARLY PREGNANCY. have ENDOCRINE FXN
what is hippomanes? who does this happen to?(NOT CELLULAR) brown materials of varying sizes floating in amnion or allantois. HORSES most common but also happens in ox, sheep, and pig. No known fnx.
what is unique about the body of the uterus of the horse? (also, what is it's placement)the body is only slightly shorter, or even as long or longer, than the horns! LONGEST IN HORSE! (placement abdominal and pelvic, in part)
where does the fetus lie in the preg mare?lies in ONE uterine horn and the body of the uterus (other horn will only have some fetal membranes in it)
what is the abnormal placement of the fetus? describe the placement.transverse presentation- when fetus lies in both uterine horns equally
how do the uterine horns move in pregnancy?move cr gradually until close to xiphoid cartilage/ diaphragm
"neck of the uterus" aka? describe the path and the mucosa/lining of it?aka cervix uteri, the cervical canal is straight and is lined with longitudinal folds
how easy/difficult is it to AI a horse? why?easy, b/c cervix is straight and only longitudinal folds
describe the vaginal part of the cervix, what structure is around here?its rounded and projects into vagina, which forms the conspicuous ANNULAR VAGINAL FORNIX, with radial folds (continuous with mucosal folds lining cervical canal)
does the horse have a fornix?yes, annular!
describe the "rose bud/ wilted rose" terminologyrose bud= cervix tight and not receptive to insemination. wilted rose= cervix more opened, ready to breed.
how much of the vagina is intraperitoneal? what cavity is the vagina in?only the cr part. in pelvic cavity
describe the mucous membrane of the vaginahas longitudinal folds (continuation of the cervical ones)
boundaries of vestibule? (ca, cr)bounded ca by labia, cranial border is at level of urethral orifice
where is the hymen of the horse?at the level of the urethral orifice (cr border of vestibule)
what is important to consider when catheterizing/instrument a horse?the vestibule rises craniodorsally from the caudal end
what is something to know about the external urethral orifice and the urethra in the horse, when talking about the vestibule?the opening is HIGHLY DILATABLE. The urethra is is short and PREDISPOSED TO PROLAPSE.
describe the horse's glans clitoridis (size, shape, what surrounds it?)LARGEST glans clit., conspicuous, rounded body. it is surrounded or even covered by the FOSSA CLITORIDIS
when is the glans clit. exposed?during micturation (peeing) or when she is ready to breed
what is "winking" in regards to horse repro?when the clitoris peeks out occasionally, indicating readiness to breed
where and how many vestibular glands?two rows
describe comissures of the lips of the vulva**ROUNDED VENTRAL and POINTED DORSAL (unique to horse)
what structures are associated with the clitoris (not the glans clitoris)deep and superficial sinuses
why do we care about the clitoral sinuses of the clitoris?may harbor contagious equine metritis organisms
blood supply of ovary?Ovarian a
where does ovarian a. come from, and what does it branch to? describe it on it's way to the ovary and at the ovaryfrom aorta directly. branches to ovarian and uterine branches of ovarian artery. Ovarian branch is TORTUOUS IN MESOVARIUM. it then divides into several branches ramifying on ovarian surface
unique thing about horses in relation to blood supply of genital tractthe ovarian branch of the ovarian artery divides into several branches which ramify (branch out) on ovarian surface
describe the ovarian vein (size, relation to the artery)Large, and not as complexly and intimately intertwined with artery as in other species
what vessel supplies the uterus?the uterine artery
where does the uterine artery come from? What's up with its branches and how is it clinically relevant?from the external iliac a. has several branches within the mesometrium [opposite= antimesometrial side, which is relatively less vascular and is site of caesarian sections]
where do you do a cesarean section?antimesometrial side (not branches of uterine a here)
what does the vaginal a supply?vagina, cervix, ca part of uterus, UB and pelvic urethra!
where does the vaginal a come from?internal pudendal a (go IN the vagina)
what vesselS supply the vagina and vestibule?vaginal a, vestibular branch of internal pudendal a
describe basics of mare mammae (how many, their association to each other, size, location on body)2 mammae (pair), closely related. relatively small, inguinal location between the thighs
what is the groove between the pair of mammary glands? where is it compressed? describe the surface of the mammaeintermammary groove. it is compressed medio-laterally. surface has sparse, fine hair and the skin has a glistening, oily look (sweat and sebaceous glands)
how many glands per mammae?2 glands per mammae (2 mammae total so 4 glands total)
describe the teat (shape, orifice)conical with TWO teat orifices/openings (b/c two duct systems)
describe the suspensory apparatus of the mammaeelastic medial and fibrous lateral suspensory ligs (like cow, but less devoloped)
blood source of mammae? main drainers of blood?source= external pudendal a. Drain= ext pudendal v. + sup. caudal epigastric v.
what are the LNs of the mammae? where are they and where do they drain?superficial inguinal (mammary) LNs are scattered between the ventral abd wall and mammary gland. Efferents to deep inguinal LNs
innervation of the mammae? (cutaneous vs parynchema)cutaneous= L2-L4 and S2-S4. Parenchyma= genitofemoral (L3+4) (34 year old boobies, nice. and of course parenchyma looks like boobs, +1)