Anatomy 2 - Equine Abdomen 2

drraythe's version from 2015-06-05 22:52


Question Answer
which side of body does spleen lie? how is it situated? left, obliquely
on what organ does the spleen lie? attached to how?lies on greater curvature of stomach (attached by gastrosplenic lig)
how much of spleen is related to the rib cage?only caudo-dorsal part projects a little beyond the rib cage caudally (NO RECTAL PALPATION)
where does the distal tip of the spleen lie (topographically)?at about ventral 1/3 of 6th or 7th rib (spleen pokes the heart hello)
shape of the cr border of spleen? ca?cr= concave, ca=convex (that tail is vexing, spleen)
what is the spleen related to, caudally?desc colon and loops of sm int
what are the three ligaments of the spleen?gastrosplenic, phrenicosplenic, Lienorenal (renosplenic)
which should be noted about the Lienorenal lig?(renosplenic), spleen attach to LEFT KIDNEY and the DORSAL BORDER of lig may entrap loops of colon (Lieno Left)
which side of the body does the liver mostly lie on? how would you describe its shape?rt side. asymmetrical
what causes the asymmetry of the liver?the RIGHT LOBE ATROPHIES WITH AGE b/c of pressure from R DORSAL COLON
liver topographical cr border? ca? (in terms of ribs)cr= lower pt of 6th/7th rib (just below the heart). ca= 16th/17th rib, ventral to R KIDNEY (below heart, then just add 1 in front---10 yr old liver)
where is the most ventral part of the liver?DOESN'T TOUCH ABD FLOOR- most ventral part at level of 7th/8th rib (Liver is l8 to get down)
where is the horse's gall bladder?IT DOESN'T HAVE ONE
where does the bile/hepatic duct open into, and with what other thing?(wide lumen) opens with the MAJOR PANCREATIC duct into the HEPATICOPANCREATIC AMPULLA (major duodenal papillae)--- distal and convex part of the duodenal sigmoid flexure
what is the hepaticopancreatic ampulla?where the hepatic and major pancreatic ducts open into the duodenum (at the distal+convex part of the sigmoid flexure)
how is the flow of the hepatic/major pancreatic duct controlled?its oblique passage through the wall acts as a valve
what are the lobes of the liver?L lobe, quadrate lobe, R lobe, caudate lobe
describe the fissures of the liver lobes? which are present?fissures not prominent, but present between L and quadrate....and between quadrate and R lobes.
where is the papillary process?NO PAPILLARY PROCESS OF CAUDATE LOBE IN HORSE
how would you describe the round lig of the liver? what is it associated with?it is strong and well formed. (associated with falciform lig)
clinical relevance of the round lig of the liver?may be divided to reinforce closure of midventral incision in horse
what are the impressions of the visceral surface of the liver? **Look at pic!!stomach, duodenal, and colic impressions. esophagal impression (dorsal part of L lobe). Renal impression on dorsal part of caudate process
how is the liver related to the pancreas?related to pan. dorsally.
how is the liver related to the caudal vena cava?VC passes through the craniodorsal surface on the median plane of the liver
which side of the body is the pancreas on? what are the gross parts of the pancreas?Right, sublumbar side. R, L lobes and a body.
what is the pancreas held in place by?held in place by sigmoid flexure of the duodenum
what is the L lobe of the pancreas related to? R lobe? what is related to the pancreas dorsally?L= saccus cecus of stomach. R= R kidney. Dorsal to pancrease is= aorta, ca VC, sublumbar mm (R kidney touches everything. Sac hangs to the left)
where does the major pancreatic duct open, with what?opens into major duodenal papillae (hepaticopancreatic ampulla) along with the bile/hepatic duct (convex part of sig. flex.)
where does the accessory pancreatic duct open?into concave surface of ca limb of duodenal sigmoid flexure through MINOR DUODENAL PAPILLAE
4 major vessels supplying the digestive system?celiac a, cr mesenteric a, ca mesenteric a, and jejunal aa (up to 18)
what does the celiac a supply?stomach, liver, spleen, also the duodenum via the gastro-duodenal a
what supplies the stomach, liver, spleen and duodenum?celiac a
what is the duodenum's blood supplied by?the gastro-duodenal a from the celiac a
what does the cr mesenteric a supply?small and large intestine (cecum, colon)
what supplies the small and large intestine (cecum, colon)'s blood?cr mesenteric a
what does the ca mesenteric a supply?mainly descending colon and rectum
what is the descending colon and rectum blood supplied by?ca mesenteric a
what do the jejunal aa supply? how do they travel?up to 18 of them radiate distally w/in the mesentary, supply loops/arches of jejunum
why does the animal want so much collateral blood supply via anastomosis in the gut?in case there is a blockage, you can still get blood there
which is more severe- a blockage of a LARGE or a SMALL artery to the gut? explain.small! because ANASTOMOSIS BETWEEN SM AA ISNT ALWAYS COMPLETE, whereas it is in the large ones so it can bypass a blockage.
clinical problems with which arteries in the gut? (parasites are?)LARGE arteries (celiac, cr+ca mesenteric) are sites of lesions of migrating larvae (strongylus vulgaris, strongylus edentatus) --may cause aneurysms may devolop.
veins are ____ of the arteries (in the gut)satellites
what do the LNs of the stomach, liver, spleen and duodenum drain to? which empties into what?(supplied by celiac a, so...) form celiac trunk, which empties into CISTERNA CHYLI
what do LNs of the sm intestines, cecum, and colon form/send efferents to?intestinal trunk
where do small intestinal LNs lie in the horse?at the root of the mesentary
what do LNs of the sm colon, rectum, and anus form/send efferents to?lumbar trunk
how do draining lymph trunks reach heart?Cisterna chyli --> aortic hiatus --> thoracic duct (running L of aorta) --> opens into a large vein at thoracic inlet (which would dump into the heart eventually)
which kidney is retroperitoneal?BOTH are, BUT! Right is MORE retroperitoneal
where does the R kidney lie? (in terms of vert column)T16-L1 (ventral to last 2 or 3 ribs and 1st lumbar xverse process) so largely covered by ribs (last 3 ribs and 1st L vert)
which kidney and where is there a renal impression?R kidney on the caudate process of the liver
what is the shape of the right kidney? describe.HEART SHAPED, flattened, transverse diameter equal to or greater than the longitudinal diameter (ONLY KIDNEY THAT IS LIKE THAT) (the heart is always right)
what are the cranial (1), ventral(5), and medial(2) relations of the right kidney?CRANIAL: liver VENTRAL: descending duodenum, pancreas, base of the cecum, coils of small colon and small intestine MEDIAL: to the right adrenal gland and the aorta
where is the left kidney (in terms of the spinal column, and in terms of the R kidney?)ventral to T17-L2, more caudal than the right kidney by one vert
is the left kidney retroperioteneal?yes, but not as much as the right kidney
how would you describe the shape of the left kidney?bean shaped and flat
what are the relations of the left kidney cranially(2), medially(1), and ventrally(2)?CRANIAL: spleen and stomach MEDIAL: aorta VENTRALLY: small colon and coils of small intestine
which kidney, where, and how, can you palpate?you can palpate the LEFT kidney's CAUDAL pole via rectal palpation
where does the hilus lie (both kidneys)?ventromedial
evidence of lobulation in kidney?only by the blood vessels, no external evidence
are there pyramids in the kidneys? is there a renal crest?it is unipyramidal with a common renal crest
is there a renal pelvis? what collects urine?there IS a renal pelvis- a centrally expanded portion and TWO POLAR TERMINAL RECESSES which collect urine
where is the renal sinus?external medial indentation which surrounds the hilus. It contains fat tissue
what makes horse urine unique, and what is the name for it?there are GLANDS in the renal pelvis/ureters which produce mucus which makes equine urine cloudy and viscous. this is called physiological albuminuria
which artery supplies the kidneys of the horse? what is it indicative of?the Renal artery, indicative of fxn of kidney
what can happen with the renal artery? (unique, physiological)?it may break into two or more branches which penetrate the ventral surface of the organ RATHER than the hilus
where do the adrenal glands lie (in terms of the kidney)?on the medial side of the cranial poles of the kidneys
what are the lobes of the liver?R, quadrate, L medial, L lateral, Caudate (process of the caudate lobe)

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