Anatomy 2 - Equine Abdomen 1

drraythe's version from 2015-06-05 22:51


Question Answer
is the flank long or short?short
is there a paralumbar fossa?yes but less marked than in ox
what is the "heave line" ? the musculoaponeurotic boundary of the external oblique m-- esp evident in horses suffering from heaves (expiatory difficulty)
what ridge does the internal abd oblique form?caudoventral ridge
what is the spur vein? why is it noted?superficial thoracic vein, may be obvious
where is the cutaneous mm well devoloped?well devoloped superficical fascia, esp CRANIOVENTRAL (ventral to line from withers to stifle joint)
what does the deep fascia become? what does it cover? attaches where?the yellow abdominal tunic (thick fibroeslastic sheet) of tissue overlying aponeurosis of eao, attaches to rib cage and tuber coxae
most extensive abdominal mm? external abd oblique
why does IAO fan out from _____?no lumbosacral attachment so fans out from tuber coxae
what function does the rectus abdominus do?provides insertion for other mm, above, via linea alba that separates L and R mm
the linea alba is ___, ___, and relatively ____strong, supportive, avascular
where does transverse abd m pass relative to rectus abdominis? to do what?transverse passes over (dorsal to) to insert on linea alba
where do the internal/external abd m pass relative to rectus? to do whatpass below (ventral) to insert on linea alba
where does the yellow abd tunic attach?linea alba
what is the superficial (external) inguinal ring? what does it split into what?a mere slit in the APONEUROSIS OF EAO. divides aponeurosis into later and medial crura
how close are medial commisures of the superficial inguinal rings?very close
how close are the lateral commisures of the superficial inguinal rings? what does it mean?laterals diverge consideribly, thus craniolateral part is longer than the caudomedial part of canal
where does the lateral crus of the sup. ing. ring attach? forms what?to the medial thigh fascia-- forms FEMORAL LAMINA (only in horse)
what is the downside of the femoral lamina?when hip is extended, there is pull on lateral crus, which can widen sup ring which predisposes to hernia (mostly happens during mating!)
contents of inguinal canal?vaginal process, spermatic cord, ext pudendal a and v, inguinal lymph vessels, nerves
how common is a inguinal hernia in a horse? **uncommon
how do you palpate vaginal ring (diagnose an inguinal hernia in a horse?)<--no sure on this partpalpate vaginal ring per rectum on ventromedial aspect of the caudal abd wall by following ductus deferens ventrally
where does the stomach live?in dorsal, left half of cr part of abd cavity **(LEFT, CRANIAL, DORSAL)
noteable about minor curvature of equine stomach?so severely flexed it forms a DEEP, angular NOTCH****
when does the stomach contact the abdominal floor?NEVER, not even when full
cr surface of stomach related to what structures?diaphragm and LEFT lobe of liver
what is the dome-like structure of the proximal stomach? (above esophagus)SACCUS CECUS
what is the ca surface of the stomach related to? sm int, panc, and descending colon
what divides the non-glandular muscosa and the glandular mucosa in the stomach?margoplicatus
what parasite is associated with margo plicatus?gastrophilus interstinalis larvae attaches to non-glanduar portion
why doesnt the horse vomit or eructate?esophagus enters lesser curvature OBLIQUELY at cardia and the CARDIAC SPHINCTER IS VERY THICK AND TIGHT
how many pyloric sphincters? devolopment of which is better?TWO, very well devoloped (cr and ca pyloric sphincter). CAUDAL better devoloped
how is the omental bursa formed?GREATER and LESSER omenta and visceral surface of stomach enclose the bursa
what are the parts of the greater omentum? and their attachments? (3)(1) gastrophrenic lig (from greater curvature to crura of diaph.) (2) gastrosplenic lig (3) **LIENORENAL (renosplenic) lig (attach LEFT kidney to spleen--implications in colic)
how and where is the duodenum fixed?by mesoduo. to dorsal wall, liver, R dorsal colon, and base of cecum
what are the portions of the duodenim? (4)cranial (sigmoid), descending, caudal flexure (transverse), and ascending
where do bile/panc ducts open? (portion of duo AND more specific)2nd curve of signoid part, MAJOR and MINOR duo. papillae, OPPOSITE each other
what other structures is the descending duo. related to?R kidney and base of cecum
where does the duodenum become the jejunum? (landmark)region of L kidney (duodenojejunal flexure)
where does the jejunoileum lie? with what?mostly on left dorsal part of abd. cavity. MIXED w/coils of small colon
where are the loops of the small intestine palpable?in dorso-caudal aspect of abd cavity
where is the epiploic foramen?between R lobe of liver and descending duodenum, between ca VC and portal vein
why do we care about the epiploic foramen?loops of jejunum can be strangulated at the foramen (ppjj)
when does the epiploic foramen enlarge?when r lobe of liver atrophies with age
where is the root of the mesentary in relation to the transverse colon?**ROOT IS CAUDAL TO COLON
where does the modification of the colon take place?ascending colon
how large is the cecum? (volume in L?) shape? portions?LARGE (30L), comma shaped, with base, body and apex
the cecum extends from where to where?from pelvic inlet to diaphragmatic area (xiphoid region)
how many taeniae coli does the cecum have?*4
what is the large non-glandular area of the stomach separated from the glandular portion by?margoplicatus
what does the large INTESTINE include?*cecum and colon (ascending, transverse, and descending)
what does the large COLON include?*ascending and transverse colon
what landmarks does the horse large intestine have that dog/ox dont?SACCULATIONS (haustra) and longitudinal bands (TAENIAE COLI)
what is the shape of the cecum? portions of it? where does it extend?comma shaped. Base, body, and apex. Extend from pelvic inlet to diaphragmatic area (xiphoid region)
how many taeniae coli does the cecum have?4
location of the cecum's base, and where is it attached?Base is DORSAL. **Attached to right sublumbar region and to the right kidney**, RIGHT OF MIDLINE
how does the cecums body run?ventrally on right flank, then lies on ventral wall, then reaches the xiphoid region of sternum.
where does the cecum's apex lie?lies on ventral wall, between right and left ventral colons
what part of cecum is palpable, and how?BASE palpable per RECTUM
what is the ascending colon also known as?large colon
is cecum part of the large colon?NO its part of the large INTESTINE
how many times does the ascending colon fold upon itself?TWICE
what are the 4 major segments of the ascending colon/large colon?R ventral colon, L ventral colon, L dorsal colon, R dorsal colon
where does the right ventral colon begin? where does it run? how does it end?begins at caeco-colic jxn at base of last rib, runs ventrally and cranially on R body wall and abd. to xiphoid area. It stops at the STERNAL FLEXURE
where is the sternal flexure (between which segments)?between R ventral colon (first part) and L ventral colon.
how many taeniae in right ventral colon?4
what does the ceco-colic fold connect?cecum and RV colon
what is the most "dangerous part of the intestine for colic"?pelvic flexure (narrow and tight turn)
can you palpate pelvic flexure? where?yes, in pelvic inlet can palpate per rectum
where does the L ventral colon start? how does it run? where does it end?starts at sternal flexure, runs caudally on abd floor, left of body and apex of cecum, ends at pelvic flexure
how mobile is the pelvic flexure?rather mobile
how many taeniae does the LVC have?4
where does the LDC start? run? end?start at pelvic flexure, runs cr over LVC, relates to the diaphragm and left of the liver, ends and diaphragmatic flexure
is LDC palpable? where?yes, per rectum
how many taeniae coli does the LDC have?1*****
where does the RDC start? run? end?diaphragmatic flexure, lies over R ventral colon, caudal course, at base of cecum turns left (close to the stomach and liver) and ends at transverse COLON.
where does most of the RDC lie?mostly within thoracic cage.
relative length and width of RDC?shortest but widest
how many taeniae colli does the RDC have?3
how does the transverse colon run?from R to L, crossing the median plane
what is the shape of the transverse colon?funnel shaped
how does the xverse colon lie in terms of the root of the mesentary? length of it?CR to root, its VERY SHORT.
where is the xverse colon attached?*to roof of body cavity.
how many taeniae does the xverse colon have?2
where is the descending colon in terms of the ___ kidney?below LEFT kidney
what is the descending colon aka?sm colon
what is the descending colon a continuation of? at what level?continuation of transverse colon at level below the left kidney
what kind of coils is the the descending/small colon? where are they?loose coils (mingling with those of the sm intestine) on L DORSAL part of abd cavity AND in pelvic inlet region
what is the general diameter of the descending colon?small
how many taeniae coli are in the descending colon?two (So there are haustra)
are there haustra in the descending colon?yes
what part of the intestine makes fecal balls?descending colon
describe the initial length of the meso-rectumlong initially
is the rectum sacculated or smooth?BOTH-- initial sacculation but a smooth, enlarged sac (ampulla) terminally
where would you say the ampulla of the rectum lies?retroperitoneally
where does the rectum lie in females?dorsal in median plane to the uterus/vagina
where does the rectum lie in males?dorsal to UB, urethra and accessory sex glands
what are the places susceptible to intestinal obstructions? (8)(1) duodenocecostomy (2) long great mesentery (3) ileum (4) Ileo-cecal opening (5) ceco-colic opening (6) pelvic flexure (7) transverse colon (8) sternal.diaphragmatic flexures
Describe the problem associated with the duodenocecostomy?side to side anastomosis of descending duodenum to base of the cecum in gastro-duodeno-jejunitis (area of obstruction)
describe the problem associated with the long great mesentery?(intestinal obstruction) permits intestinal extension during surgery, but also causes twisting of loops of intestine (volvulus). eg: parts of the ascending colon are free floating
what is a common problem with the ileum?ileal impaction, not understood why but it is thick walled and quite frequent
what is a common problem with the ileo-cecal opening?abnormally high peristalsis (pushes mucosa into cecum)--> ileum TELESCOPES into cecum (intussuscception). Surgical remedy.
what is a common problem with ceco-colic opening?**CAN BE VERY FATAL enlarged cr. part of base falls over, cranioventrally--> blockage of cecocolic orifice (trocarization necessary--punch through wall to release gas)
which flexure is most dangerous flexure in large intestine in horse? which can also be impacted, but less often?PELVIC flexure (can feel per rectum)... sternal/diaph also possible but less likely
why is impaction likely in the xverse colon?it is FUNNEL shaped
impaction areas in LI of horseileocecal, cecal colic, pelvic flexure, transverse colon, sternal flex, diag flex
impaction areas in large COLONsternal flex, pelvic flex, diag flex, xverse colon
what is a common problem with the cecum?it can get sand-bound (horse eats sand and sand lodges in cecum)
what is a common problem with the entire large colon?secured ONLY at cecal base and xverse colon, rest is freely moveable and suseptible to TWISTING (volvulus)
what are the two points of attachment of the Lg colon to the body wall?*base of cecum and xverse colon