Anatomy 1 - Thorax Q&A

drraythe's version from 2015-04-18 17:12

Section 1

Question Answer
What are the two major parts of a typical vertebraBody and Arch
What is an intervertebral foramen Opening between adjacent vertebrae allowing passage of spinal nerve
How do ribs articulate with the thoracic vertebrae Head articulates with bodies of contiguous vertebrae and the tubercle articulates with the transverse process of same number
What is the name of the space between two adjacent ribsIntercostal space
What do the costal cartilages of the last sternal and all asternal ribs form Costal arch
What are the first and last sternebraeManubrium and Xiphoid bone
What caps the xiphoid process Xiphoid cartilage
What thoracic vertebra usually has the vertically oriented spineAnticlinal vertebra, T11 dog and T10 cat

Section 2

Question Answer
How is inspiration accomplished Increase size of thorax decreases pressure (cranial + lateral)
What is the main respiratory muscleDiaphragm
Name the 2 muscles extending between adjacent ribsExternal and Internal intercostal mm.
What is the opening into the thoraxThoracic inlet
What forms the thoracic inlet1st Thoracic Vertebra, right & left 1st ribs & sternum
What palpable structure is formed by the costal cartilages of the false ribsCostal ribs
What divides the thorax into two spaces Mediastinum
What is the heart located in thoracic cavity3rd to 6th intercostal space into bottom 2/3 of cavity
Which side of the aorta does the thoracic esophagus normally crossRight side of the aortic arch

Section 3

Question Answer
What covers the trachea in the cranial neckOnly strap muscles (sternohyoideus & sternothyroideus mm.)
What part of the trachea splits into right and left primary bronchiTracheal bifurcation
What separates lobes of the lungsInterlobar fissures
What is the opening between the lobes of the lung where the surgeon's pericardium comes in contact comes in contact with the thoracic wall Cardiac Notch
What do radiologists call the pulmonary trunk Main pulmonary artery/ segment MPA

Section 4

Question Answer
What is the mediastinum Space or wall separating the thoracic cavity into 2 cavities and thus separating the 2 pleural cavities
What are the divisions of the mediastinum Cranial, middle (heart) and caudal, all divided into dorsal & ventral parts
List the parts of the pericardium Fibrous pericardium, serous pericardium (visceral and parietal)
What is located in the pericardial cavityA scant amount of serous fluid

Section 5

Question Answer
Which side of the heart is pulmonary circulation right side = pulmonary side
The left side of the heart is part of what circulationSystemic circulation
Describe the position of the right ventricle on the heart? left ventricleRight = cranial, Left = caudal
What is the vestigial, fetal connection from the pulmonary trunkLigamentum arteriosum
What is the most caudal ventral part of the heart (right or left)Apex, left
What are the valves of the heart Right and left atrioventricular, aortic and pulmonic valves (semi lunar)
What is the function of the AV valvesPrevent flow back into the atria during ventricular contraction
What is the role of the semilunar valvesPrevent blood returning to heart during systole
What abnormal sounds are caused by blood flow turbulence in the heartMurmurs

Section 6

Question Answer
What are the 3 parts of the conduction system of the heartSinoatrial node (Pacemaker), Atrioventricular node, atrioventricular bundle branches
What is the term for ventricular contraction and relaxationVentricular systole, ventricular diastole
How do diastole and systole relate to heart sounds Systole between sounds 1 & 2 Diastole between 2 & 1
What do the 1st and 2nd heart sounds sound like and roughly represent 1st (Lub) closure of AV valves (start of systole) and 2nd closure of semilunar valve (diastole)
What causes closure and opening of the AV and semilunar valvesOpening: AV: diastole; Semilunar: systole, Closure AV: systole ; Semilunar: Diastole
What does the recoil of the elastic aorta at the end of systole causePushes blood to body and back towards the heart, closing aortic valve and filling the coronary arteries

Section 7

Question Answer
How is the esophagus normally related to the arch of the aortaTo the right of the arch of the aorta
What arteries travel up the neck to supply the head and faceCommon carotid
What artery travels up the floor of the thoraxInternal thoracic
What vessels and nerves travel in the intercostal space caudal to the ribsIntercostal a. v. and n.

Section 8

Question Answer
What 3 fetal structures bypass the lungs and liverDuctus arteriosus, ductus venosus, and the foramen ovale
Where does the arteriosus shunt most of the blood in the right ventricle from the pulmonary to systemic circulation From the pulmonary trunk to the aorta
What is the adult remnant of the Ductus arterious Ligamentum arteriosum
What is the adult remnant of the Foramen ovaleOval fossa or fossa ovale
What is the adult remnant of the umbilical arteriesRound ligaments of urinary bladder
What is the adult remnant of the umbilical veinRound ligament of the liver

Section 9

Question Answer
What is the large lymphatic channel channel draining in the caudal animalThoracic duct (from abdomen, pelvis, and pelvic limbs)
What lymph nodes are near the bifurcation of the trachea Tracheobronchial lymph nodes
What is the lymphatic structure in the cranial mediastinumCranial mediastinal lymph node

Section 10

Question Answer
What is the largest nerve crossing the heart to the diaphragm The phrenic n.
What is the branch of the vagus that returns to the neck Recurrent laryngeal nerve (left around the arch of the aorta, Right around the right subclavian artery)
What does the recurrent laryngeal nerve innervate Laryngeal skeletal muscles + cricoarytenoideus dorsalis m.
What supplies cutaneous innervation to the top of the thoracic and abdominal walls Both the dorsal and ventral branches of the spinal nn. in the thoracic and lumbar region
What is the parasympathetic innervation to the thorax Vagus
What are the two series of connected ganglia lying on either side of the bodies of the thoracolumbar vertebrae and longis colli muscleSympathetic trunk (chain)
Which way do the motor fibers travel in the vagosympathetic trunkSympathetic toward the head, vagus away from the head

Section 11

Question Answer
What is a serosa (serous membrane) A thin, continuous membrane linign a closed cavity and covering the cavities organs
What are the serous membranes of the pericardial cavity, thorax, abdomen, and spermatic cordPericardium, pleura, peritoneum, vaginal tunics
What serosa covers the walls of a cavityParietal
What serosa covers an organVisceral
What connects Parietal and Visceral serosaConnecting Serosa
Are the lungs located in the pleural cavities No
What is the line of pleural reflectionPoint costal pleura reflects onto diaphragm
What is the plural cupolaCranial Pleural sac extending out through the thoracic inlet