Anatomy 1 - Terms

drraythe's version from 2015-04-18 17:07

Directional Terms

Question Answer
AbaxialSituated away from the axis of the body, limb or part.
Anterior (cranial)lying face downward, or on the ventral surface.
Axial1. Pertaining to or deriving from an axis. 2. Pertaining to or deriving from the axis bone of the vertebral column.
Caudal (posterior)Situated more towards the cauda, or tail, than some specified reference point; toward the inferior (in humans) or hinder (in animals) end of the body.
DistalRemote; further from any point of reference.
DorsalDirected toward or situated on the back surface, the surface facing away from the ground; opposite to ventral.
InferiorSituated below or directly downward; the lower surface of a structure, or the lower of two similar structures. In bipeds synonymous with caudal and in quadripeds synonomous with ventral.
Lateral1. Denoting a position further from the median plane or midline of the body or a structure; the side or outside. 2. Pertaining to a side.
MedialPertaining to or situated toward the midline.
PalmarDescriptive of the palm of the human hand, or of the homologous surface or direction of the limbs of other animal spp.
PlantarPertaining to the sole or caudal aspect of the digit.
ProneLying face downward, or on the ventral surface.
Proximal Nearest to a point of reference, as to a center or median line or to the point of attachment or origin.
SagittalSaid of a plane or section parallel to the median plane of the body.
SuperficialSituated on or near the surface.
SupinationIn humans, rotation of the forearm to bring the palm to face upward; in animals, the action is best in primates but is still significant in laboratory animals, cats and dogs.
VentralDirected toward or situated on the belly surface; opposite of dorsal.

Layman's terms

Question Answer
AcreA unit of land; equals 4048.9 M squared.
BalkRefusing to move.
BarebackRiding without a saddle.
BarefootA barefoot horse wears no horse shoes.
Barn sourA horse who balks when asked to leave the barn or stable area.
BarrelThe area on a horse's body between the forearms and the loins (also called the trunk).
BeddingWood chips, straw or shavings used on the floor of a horses stall to absorb moisture and provide padding.
Bot flyA fly often found around horses that looks similar to a big bee. They often lay tiny white eggs on the horses legs and belly, these eggs stick to the ends of the hair and if ingested the larvae migrate to the stomach wall where they attach themselves.
Bowed hocksA fault in conformation which means the hocks of the hind legs turn outwards. Opposite to Cow-hocks.
Bowed tendonsA tendon that stays inflammed all the time. Doesn’t generally result in lameness, however that tendon is not as strong which can create other issues.
BuckWhen a horse leaps in the air, keeping all forelegs stiff and his back arched, while lowering his head, sometimes kicking back in an effort to unseat a rider or just to express emotion!
Cannon bonesThe third Metacarple or Metatarsal bones.
CastA cast horse is one that has fallen or laid down so close to a fense or wall that they can't get up without help.
Coffin boneThe bone inside the hoof closest to the ground; P3.
Cold-bloodedHorses with origins in the draft breeds and heavy war horses. Generally exhibit a thick coat, long fetlocks and dense bone structure.
ColtAn intact male horse under the age of 3 years.
Condition1. The horse's fitness and readiness to run; 2. "Body" condition is essentially grading of muscle and fat content.
ConformationHow a horse is put together with regard to his shape, including proportions and angles. Usually referenced in an ideal for the breed.
Cow hocksA fault in conformation which means the hocks of the hind legs turn inwards. Often the horse is also splay footed (feet point outward like a ducks feet).
Cribbing or Wind SuckingA stable vice in which the horse latches onto a horixontal object (e.g. the manger) with the teeth, tenses the neck and swallows; synonym is "crib - biting".
Cutting horseA horse trained to separate, or cut out, one animal - usually a cow - from a herd.

Part 2

Question Answer
EventingCompetitions which include three different disciplines: dressage, cross country and stadium jumping.
Far sideThe right side of the horse. Also known as the "Off Side" and is not typically the side one handles horses from.
FillyA female horse under the age of 3 years.
FrogA shock absorbing wedge-shaped pad in the sole of the hoof that contacts the ground first with each step.
GaitA pattern of foot movements. The most common gaits are the walk, trot, canter and gallop.
GeldingA castrated male horse.
GirthThe circumference of a horse's body, measured from behind the withers around the barrel; the strap that holds down the saddle (saddle girth).
Grade horseA mixed breed of horse.
GreenA horse that has had little training or experience with a rider.
Half-bredAn old term that describes a cross between a thoroughbred and any other breed.
HandA unit of measurement equaling 4inches, used to estimate a horse's height. The height of a horse is listed as the number of hands, followed by a decimal point, then followed by the number of additional inches. (e.g. 16 hands and 2 inches = 16.2hh)
Head shyA horse that spooks (gets a fright) when you move too quickly near their head.
Hot-bloodedA horse whose bloodlines are Thoroughbred or Arabian. Generally they exhibit fine bones, a fine or thin coat and high energy.
Knee The carpus of a horse is often referred to as the knee.
Near sideThe left side of the horse. Horses are usually more accostomed to being approached and handled from this side.
PonyA small horse; usually 14.2 hands or under.
RearWhen a horse rises to stand on it's hind legs, usually to throw off a rider and or tack or to express emotion!
RogueA horse with a bad temper.
Sound horseA horse without any problems.
Stadium jumping or Show jumpingA compitition where horse and rider jump a series of jumps/ fences against a clock. The course of jumps is set inside a stadium.
Stall walkingA stable vice in which the horse paces endlessly around his stall.
StudA stallion used for breeding purposes.
Tack Equipment used in riding, including the saddle, bridle and saddlepad.
ViceAn undesirable behavioral habit.
WeanlingA horse under one years of age that has been separated (or weaned) from it's mother.
WeavingA stable vice in which the horse continually rocks from side to side, shifting his weight from one front leg to the other, causing the neck and head to sway as well.
WithersThe ridge in the horse's backbone, just behind the mane. It is the highest point on the horse's spine and from where height is measured.
YearlingA young horse between 1 and 2 years of age.