Anatomy 1 - Before & After (no radio)

drraythe's version from 2015-04-18 17:14

Section 1

Question Answer
What is the palpable caudal end of the skull used as a landmark?External occipital protuberance
What are the palpable lateral processes just caudal to the skull?Wings of the atlas
What part of the hyoid apparatus crosses the ventral midline and is seen in lateral radiographs of the head?Basihyoid bone
What are the enlarged transverse processes that are identifiable in radiographs of the cervical region?Sled of the sixth cervical vertebrae
What is usually the 11th thoracic vertebrae with the most vertically oriented spine used as a landmark for back radiographs? Anticlinal vertebrae
What is the dorsal gap between the arches of contiguous vertebral arches used as an access point to the vertebral canal for epidurals?Interarcuate space
What projects laterally from the scapula and is palpable?Spine if the scapula
What is the distal end of the spine of the scapula?Acromion
What is the ventral part of the acromion in the cat?Suprahamate process
What is the origin of the biceps brachial m. that can be fractured?Supraglenoid tubercle
What is the palpable cranial most part of the shoulder region of the thoracic limb?Greater tubercle/ point of the shoulder
What is the canal in the medial epicondyle of the cat humerus that carries the median n. and brachial vessels?Supracondylar canal
What is the bony landmark located in the 5th intercostal space in the standing animal?Olecranon
What is the proximal end if the notch (trochlear) of the ulna?Anconeal process
What is the distal end of the notch (trochlear) of the ulna?Medial coronoid process
What small sesamoid bone may be located on the medial side of the carpus?Sesamoid bone of the oblique carpal extensor tendon
What is a landmark for the medial side of the manus and pes if present?Dewclaw!
What is the bony process that holds the horny claw?Ungual crest
What is the palpable part of the hip bone caudal to the flank?Tuber coxae
What is the palpable lateral structure of the proximal femur?Greater trochanter
What is the palpable proximal end of the tibia? Tibial tuberosity!
What is the distal end of the fibula?Lateral malleolus
List the sesamoid bones of the stifle.Patella sesamoid, 2 Sesamoids of the gastrocnemius muscle, Sesamoid in the tendon if the origin of the popliteal m.
What is the palpable caudal end of the hip bone?iIschial tuber

Section 2

Question Answer
1. Define extrinsic and intrinsic muscles and give examples.extrinsic, attach a structure to the body Intrinsic, both attachments on the structure
2. What nerve innervates the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles?suprascapular nerve
3. What nerve innervates almost all the extensors of the thoracic limb?radial nerve
4. What are the two groups of forearm muscles? What are their location?extensors of digits & carpus (Craniolateral), flexor a of the digits and carpus (caudal)
5. What are the insertions of the deep digital flexor (DDF) and the superficial digital flexor (SDF) muscles?DDF, distal phalanges SDF, proximal to DDF insertion
6. What is the rectus sheath?Aponeuroses of the abdominal mm. around the rectus abdominis muscle
7. What muscles cover the trachea ventrally?two paired strap muscles, sternohyoideus & sternothyroideus
8. What mm. are above and below the transverse processes of the vertebrae?epaxial mm., dorsal hypaxial mm., ventral
9. What are the extensors of the stifle and what innervates them?cranial thigh/quadriceps mm., femoral nerve
10. What is the action and innervation of the medial thigh muscles?adduction, obturator nerve
11. What are the actions of the crural mm.?Craniolateral, extensors of digits and flexor of the tarsus (extensors) Caudal, flexor a of the digits and extensors of the tarsus (flexors)
12. What is the innervation of the extensor mm. of the crus?Craniolateral extensors, common fibular nerve
13. What nerve innervates the thin mm. of facial expression?Facial nerve, CrN 7
14. What is the muscle of facial expression that encircles the eye? What innervates it?orbicularis oculi m., Facial nerve, CrN 7 (auriculopalpebral branch)
15. What nerve is sensory to the 3 areas of the face and motor to the muscles of mastication? trigeminal n., CrN 5, all three divisions, motor to mastication mm., mandibular division
16. What is the motor innervation to the mm. of the tongue?Hypoglossal n, CrN 12
17. What is the function of cutaneous m.?twitch skin, shoo fly!

Section 3

Question Answer
1. What separates the respiratory and digestive passages in the head?hard and soft palates
2. Name the four types of permanent teeth and give abbreviations.C, canine I, incisor PM, premolars M, molars
3. What are the three divisions of the pharynx/ throat?oropharynx, nasopharynx, laryngopharynx
4. What structure separates the nasopharynx from the oropharynx?soft palate
5. Name the lymphoid tissue in the lateral wall of the oropharynx.palatine tonsil
6. What is the largest meatus located between the ventral nasal concha and the hard palate?Ventral nasal meatus
7. What is the unpaired hyoid bone that crosses the midline?basihyoid bone
8. What does the pull of the circoarytenoideus dorsalis m. on the muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage do?swings the vocal process and the vocal cords laterally, thus, opening the glottic cleft
9. What is the only laryngeal m. which opens the glottic cleft?cricoarytenoideus dorsalis m.
10. What is the narrowest part of the laryngeal cavity?glottic cleft
11. To which side of the trachea does the esophagus incline in the middle of the neck?left

Section 4 abdomen overview

Question Answer
1. How does the cavity of the bony thorax relate to the thoracic cavity?larger, dome of the diaphragm extends into the bony thorax to the 6th intercostal space (encases abd.)
2. The descending duodenum is on which side of the abd.?right
3. Where is the cecum located?right side
4. List three types of peritoneum.connecting, parietal, visceral
5. How are many mesenteries/connecting peritoneum named?meso + organ name

Section 5 repro overview

Question Answer
1. Where are the ovaries located in carnivores?caudal to the kidneys in the sublumbar region
2. What is the suspensory ligament in carnivores?part of the broad ligament connecting the ovary to the last 1 or 2 ribs
3. What is the fornix of the vagina?ventral recess formed by the cervix projecting into the vagina
4. Describe the location and appearance of the cat's scrotum.perineal, densely covered by hair
5. What is the relationship of the ductus deferens to the ureters?loops dorsally over the ureters *water under bridge*
6. What is the inguinal canal?passageway through the caudal abdominal wall
7. Name the 3 main parts of the vaginal serosal tunic or the spermatic cord.visceral, parietal, and connecting vaginal tunic
8. The vaginal cavity of the spermatic cord is continuous with the *blank* at the vaginal ring.peritoneal cavity
9. On which side of the spermatic cord is the ductus deferens?medial

section 6 circulation

Question Answer
1. Which specific large veins return blood from the cranial and caudal part of the body, directly to the heart?cranial and caudal vena cava
2. What are the chambers of the heart in the order that they receive blood?rt atrium, rt ventricle, lt atrium, lt ventricle
3. Which side of the heart is involved with pulmonic circulation?right
4. Which side of the heart is involved in systemic circulation?left
5. What is the outflow of the heart to the body?aorta
6. What arteries travel up the neck to supply the head and face?common carotid arteries
7. Which veins return blood from the head and neck?external jugular veins

section 7 arteries body overview

Question Answer
1. Name the three unpaired branches of the abdominal aorta.celiac, cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries
2. Name the main branches (arteries) of the terminal aorta.2 external iliac ( to pelvic limb), 2 internal iliac (to pelvis), 1 median sacral (to the tail)
3. What is the main artery supplying the uterus?uterine artery
4. What vessels supply the ventral abdominal wall? Where do they run?cranial and caudal epigastric vessels, on ventral abd. on either side of midline
5. What is the direct continuation of the external iliac artery out of the abdominal cavity to the pelvic limb, for which it is the main supply?femoral artery
6. What is the vascular supply to the ovary?ovarian artery and vein (in mesovarium)

section 8 veins body overview

Question Answer
1. What is the large vein draining the intestine to the sinusoids of the liver?portal vein
2. Where do the ovarian or testicular veins drain?right, caudal vena cava left, left renal vein (avoids crossing the aorta)
3. Which vessel crosses the ventral surface of the adrenal gland, thus, it is a surgical landmark for finding this structure?phrenicoabdominal vein
4. Where is the cephalon vein located?cranial surface of the forearm
5. What is the vein that is on the ventral surface of the tail that is a direct continuation of the median sacral vein?median caudal vein
6. What are the two superficial veins of the pelvic limb?medial and lateral saphenous veins
7. What vein is on either side of the ventral surface of the tongue?lingual vein (sublingual vein is on the floor of the mouth)

section 9 lymphatic system

Question Answer
1. Describe the thoracic duct.the major lymphatic vessel returning most of the lymph collected in the body back into the general circulation at the venous angle
2. What lymph node is located near the end of the aorta above the descending colon?medial iliac lymph nodes

Section 10 nervous system

Question Answer
1. How is the nervous system divided?functionally, somatic (body) & autonomic (visceral) structurally, CNS & PNS
2. Which functional division of the nervous system keeps the body in balance with its external and internal environment?external, somatic internal, autonomic
3. What are the two parts of the CNS?Brain and spinal cord
4. What are the parts of the PNS?cranial and spinal nerves and ganglia
5. What are the two impulses of the nervous, both somatic and autonomic?sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent)

section 11 spinal nerves

Question Answer
1. What nervous structures pass from the spinal cord to the periphery?spinal nerves, lower motor neurons
2. Where do the spinal nerves leave the vertebral column?intervertebral foramen
3. What arises from the spinal cord to form a spinal nerve?dorsal (sensory) and ventral (motor)
4. What are the two main branches of spinal nerves? What do do they carry?dorsal and ventral branches both carry motor and sensory fibers
5. What areas do the ventral and dorsal motor branches of the spinal nerves supply motor innervation?ventral, muscles ventral to the transverse process of the vertebrae dorsal, muscles dorsal to the transverse processes sensory innervation not the same
6. What spinal nerve branches supply sensation from the skin of the abdominal wall and back? dorsal, back above transverse processes ventral, rest

section 12 reflex arc

Question Answer
1. List the components of a reflex arc.stimulus, receptor, sensory neuron (afferent), interneuron, motor neuron (efferent)/ lower motor neuron, effector organ

section 13 spinal plexus

Question Answer
1. What forms nerve plexuses?interlacing ventral branches of the spinal nerves
2. What important nerve arises from the cervical and brachial plexuses thus, in the neck, and supplies the diaphragm?phrenic nerve
3. What plexus supplies the abdominal wall, pelvic limb, external genitalia, rump and perineum?brachial plexus
4. What plexus supplies the abdominal wall, pelvic limb, external genitalia, rump and perineum?lumbosacral plexus
5. What is a dermatome?an area of skin supplied by a single spinal nerve


Section 14 peripheral nerves thoracic limb
Question Answer
1. What two muscles does the suprascapular nerve innervate?supraspinatus and infraspinatus
2. Where does the radial nerve first reach the skin?lateral arm, under the border of the lateral triceps (susceptible to injury)
3. What innervates the cutaneous trunci musclelateral thoracic nerve
4. What nerve supplies the extensors of the elbow, and thus necessary for weight bearing?radial nerve
5. What nerve supplies the extensors of the elbow, carpus and digits?radial nerve
6. What is the cutaneous innervation of the paw by the ulnar nerve?a axial 5th digit

section 15 somatic nerves thorax abdomen

Question Answer
1. What is the large nerve crossing the heart to innervate the diaphragm?Phrenic nerve
2. What is the branch of the vagus nerve that returns to the neck?recurrent laryngeal nerve
3. What does the recurrent laryngeal nerve innervate?most laryngeal skeletal muscles circoarytenoideus dorsalis muscle
4. What nerves supply the intercostal muscles and most of the thoracic wall?intercostal nerves ( ventral branches of thoracic nerves)
5. What do the ventral and dorsal branches of spinal mm. T13, L1, L2 and L3 supply?ventral branches, motor to abdominal mm. and skin of the ventral abd dorsal branches, motor and sensory to the area above the transverse process of the vertebrae also sensory to the skin on the dorsal flank (paralumbar fossa)

section 16 lumbosacral plexus

Question Answer
1. What nerve supplies motor innervation to the adductors of the thigh?obturator nerve
2. What nerve innervates the extensors of the pelvic limb? Common fibular (peroneal) nerve, dorsal pes
3. What is the cutaneous branch of the femoral nerve?saphenous nerve
4. What nerve is required to bear weight on the pelvic limb?femoral nerve, extends the stifle
5. What nerve supplies the anus and the external anal sphincter?Caudal rectal nerve

Section 17 spinal cord overview

Question Answer
1. What is a spinal cord segment?portion demarcated by the pair of spinal nerves that arise from it
2. Name the 5 divisions of the spinal cord.cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, caudal
3. Name 5 functional divisions of the spinal cord.area 1, cervical (c1-5) area 2, brachial (c6-t2) area 3, thoracolumbar (t3-l3) area 4, pelvic limb (l4-s1) area 5, sacral caudal (s2-Cn)
4. What is the central H shaped mass of a spinal cord cross section?gray matter
5. Of what does white matter of the spinal cord consist?myelinated axons running up and down the spinal cord
6. What are ascending and descending tracks of the spinal cord and what do they carry? ascending, myelinated afferent axons & sensory information descending, myelinated efferent axons of upper motor neurons, motor fibers
7. Where does the spinal cord end in the dog? In the cat?dog, above the body of vertebrae L6 (6-7) cat, above the sacrum
8. Which spinal cord segment is the last one completely over the same named vertebrae?L3 (what does this even mean? JC)