baejuhyeoned's version from 2018-12-01 15:17


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Used for breaking down food into nutrients which then pas into the circulatory system to where they are needed in the bodyFunction of Digestive
(1) Ingestion, (2) Digestion, (3) Absorption, (4) EliminationFOUR STAGES TO FOOD PROCESSING
IngestionTaking in food
DigestionBreaking down food into nutrients
AbsorptionTaking in nutrients by cells
EliminationRemoving any leftover wastes
(1) Ingestion, (2) Propulsion, (3) Mechanical Digestion, (4) Chemical digestion, (5) Absoprtion, (6) DefecationDIGESTIVE PROCESSES
Mechanical digestionphysical preparation of food for digestion.
Segmentationmixing of food in the intestines with digestive juices
Chemical digestionCarbohydrates, Fat, and Proteins are broken down by enzymes
Absorptiontransfer of the digested portion of food into the blood from the digestive canal
Defecationremoval/elimination of the waste products from the body
MouthBuccal/oral cavity
Salivacombine with food
SalivaBreakdown of carbohydrates


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(1) Parotid Gland, (2) Submandibular Gland, (3) Sublingual3 SALIVARY GLANDS
Parotid GlandsFound anterior to the ear between masseter and skin
Submandibular GlandsFound underneath the mandible
Sublingual glandsFound underneath the tongue
TongueHelps grind food into a bolus which contains partially digested food and saliva
TongueHelps form words and is a sensory organ for taste
(1) Filiform papillae, (2) Fungiform papillae, (3) Circumvallate paillaeTHREE SURFACE FEATURES OF TONGUE
Filiform papillaeroughness and grip
Fungiform papillaecontains taste buds
Circumvallate papillaecontains taste buds
Bolusis food that turns into a ball by the tongue
Oropharynx and Laryngopharynxcommon passageways for food and air
Peristalsiswave of muscular contractions that push the bolus down towards the stomach


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Esophageal glandsproduce mucus to lubricate bolus
Esophageal glandsprevents backflow into oral cavity
Cardiac sphincterprevents backflow into esophagus
Esophagus10 inches
EsophagusTube pathway of food and water
Stomachtemporary storage of food and water
StomachCould accommodate 2-4L of food and water
HCI/Hydrochloric Acidmost powerful digestive enzyme that helps digest food
Lower esophageal sphinctera tight muscle that keeps stomach acid out of the esophagus
Rugae foldsfolds of the stomach
Rugae foldsBig muscular pouch
Rugae foldsChurns the bolus (Physical Digestion) and mixes it with gastric juice, a mixture of stomach acid, mucus and enzymes
Duodenumbile, produced in the liver but stored in the gallbladder, enter through the bile.
DuodenumIt breaks down fats
Jejunumis where the majority of absorption takes place
Jejunum :8 FEET
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Ileumlast portion of small intestine
IleumCompacts leftovers to pass through the caecum into the large intestine
Ileum12 FEET
Villitiny fingerlike projections which increase the surface are for absorbing nutrients


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Large Intestineis used to absorb water from the waste material leftover
Large IntestineProduce vitamin K and some B vitamins using the helpful bacteria that live here
Large IntestineAlso called as colon


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(1) Production, (2) Storage, (3) Nourishment, (4) TransportFUNCTIONS IN GAMETE
Fertilizationfusion of male and female gametes to form a zygote


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Glans Penisurination and deposit semen
Scrotumencloses the 2 testes and maintains temperature suitable for sperm production
TestesProduce sperm
TestesProduce and secrete testosterone
Epididymisstores maturing sperm
Vas deferensCarries sperm upward from epididymis to the ejaculatory duct
Ejaculatory DuctDuring ejaculation, semen passes through this duct and exits the body via the penis
Spermatic Cordcord-like structure formed by the vas deferens and surrounding tissue
Cowper’s glandsecrete fluid that neutralize urine acidity in the urethra prior to the passage of semen
Seminal Vesiclessecrete fluid high in fructose to nourish sperm
Prostate Glandsecretes fluid that initiates sperm movement and nutrition
Urethra – Passage of urine and semen
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Bulbourethral glandsecrete alkaline mucus with lubricating properties
Mature sperm cellssmallest cells in the body


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(1) Head, (2) Middle Piece, (3) FlagellumPARTS OF SPERM CELL
Typical Ejaculate2-5 ml fluid
Typical EjaculateContains between 20-100 fluid million spermatozoa per ml
Seminal FluidA distinct ionic and nutritive glandular secretion


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FSH (Follicle Stimulating hormones)Targets sustentacular cells to promote spermatogenesis
LH (Leutenizing hormone)Causes secretion of testosterone and other androgens
Testosterone most important androgen


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MittelschmerzPain on one side of your lower abdomen and you don’t know what it is
MittelschmerzIt occurs midway through your menstrual cycle – about 14 days before your next menstrual period
MyometriumOuter muscular layer
Endometriuma thin, inner, glandular mucosa
Perimetriuman incomplete serosa continuous with the peritoneum


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Mons Pubisfatty tissue on pubic symphysis
Labia MajoraProtects external genital
Labia MinoraProtects vaginal and urethral openings
ClitorisErectile tissue and is richly supplied with nerves
Bartholin glandssmall pea-sized glands
Bartholin glandsProduce a mucoid secretion to lubricate the vagina and vulva
Skene’s glandsSecrete mucus


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28 daysnormal menstrual cycle
2-7 daysbleeding average
20 to 80mLaverage blood loss


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(1) Proliferative Phase, (2) Secretory Phase, (3) Menstrual PhaseTHREE PHASES DURING MENSTRUAL CYCLE
Proliferative PhasePreparing for Ovulation
Proliferative PhaseEndometrium begins to grow after
Secretory PhasePreparing for Implantation
Secretory PhaseEndometrium is becoming ready for the implantation of a blastocyst
Menstrual PhaseIf no implantation occurs, the endometrium breaks down and is discharged in menstruation


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Dysmenorrheapainful menstruation
AmenorrheaAbsence of menstruation
PolymenorrheaMenstrual cycles of less than 21 days
OligomenorrheaDiminished menstrual flow that is not amenorrhea


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FSHStimulates follicular development
LHMaintains structure and secretory function of corpus luteum
EstrogensMost dominant female hormone
EstrogensStimulate endometrial growth & secretion


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NATURAL METHOD OF CONTRACEPTIONThe natural family planning methods do not involve any chemical or foreign body introduction into the human body
Abstinenceinvolves refraining from sexual intercourse
AbstinenceMost effective natural birth control method with ideally 0% fail rate
Calendar Methodalso called rhythm method
Calendar MethodEntails withholding from coitus during the days that the woman is fertile
Basal Body temperatureindicates the woman’s temperature at rest
Cervical Mucus MethodThe change in cervical mucus during ovulation is the basis for this method
Symptothermal MethodCombination of BBT method and the cervical mucus method
Ovulation detectionuses and over the counter kit that requires the urine sample of the woman
Ovulation detectionThe kit can predict ovulation through the surge of luteinizing hormone that happens 12-24 hours before ovulation
Coitus Interruptusone of the oldest methods that prevents conception
Coitus InterruptusWhen couple goes on with coitus but the man withdraws the moment he ejaculates to emit spermatozoa outside the female reproductive organ


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Oral contraceptivesContain synthetic estrogen and progesterone
Oral contraceptivesSuggested that the woman takes first pill on the first Sunday after the beginning of menstrual flow
Estrogensuppresses the Follicle Stimulating Hormone
Transdermal Patchcontains both estrogen and progesterone
Transdermal PatchApply one patch every week for four weeks in: Upper Outer Arm, Abdomen or Buttocks
Vaginal Ringreleases a combination of estrogen and progesterone and it surrounds the cervix
Vaginal RingThis silicon ring is inserted into the female reproductive organ and remains there for three weeks
Subdermal Implantstwo rod-like implants inserted under the skin of the female during her menses or on the 7th day of menstruation
Hormonal Injectionscontain medroxyprogesterone and is usually given once every 12 weeks intramuscularly
Hormonal InjectionsThis injection causes changes in the endometrium and cervical mucus and can help prevent ovulation
Intrauterine deviceis a small t-shaped object containing progesterone that is inserted into the uterus via the female reproductive organ
Intrauterine devicePrevents fertilization by creating local sterile inflammatory condition to prevent implantation of zygote
Chemical barriersare used to cause the death of sperms before they can enter the cervix and to lower the pH level of the female reproductive organ
DiaphragmCircular, rubber disk that fits the cervix and should be placed before coitus
DiaphragmInhibiting the entrance of the sperm and works better when used with a spermicide
Cervical capmade of soft rubber and fitted on the rim of the cervix
Male condomslatex or synthetic rubber sheath that is placed on the erect male reproductive organ before penetration into the female reproductive organ to trap the sperm during ejaculation
Female condomsmade of latex rubber sheaths that are pre-lubricated with spermicide
Female condomsUsed to prevent fertilization of egg by sperm cells
Vasectomysmall incision made on each side of the scrotum
Tubal Ligationprocedure is done through a small incision under the woman’s umbilicus that targets the fallopian tube for cutting to inhibit passage of sperm to ova