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Question Answer
(1) Gather and process information, (2) Produce responses to stimuli, (3) Coordinate the workings of different cells3 FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
Stimulussomething that triggers response
(1) Rest and Digest, (2) Fight or Flight2 TYPES OF RESPONSES
Rest and DigestParasympathetic Nerves
Fight or FlightAction Response
Fight or FlightSympathetic Nerves
Central Nervous System (CNS) & Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)TWO PARTS OF NERVOUS SYSTEM
Central Nervous System (CNS)Includes brain and spinal cord
Central Nervous System (CNS)Receives, processes, interprets, stores information & sends messages destined for muscles, glands & organs
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)Transmits information to & from the CNS by way of sensory and motor nerves
Somatic Nervous System & Autonomic Nervous SystemTWO PARTS OF PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
Somatic Nervous SystemControls the skeletal muscles
Autonomic Nervous SystemRegulates glands, blood vessels and internal organs
Autonomic Nervous SystemIt is divided into Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous System
Sympathetic Nervous System & Parasympathetic Nervous SystemTWO TYPES OF AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
Sympathetic Nervous SystemMobilizes body for action, energy output
Parasympathetic Nervous SystemConserves energy and quiet state


Question Answer
PARASYMPATHETICStimulate activity of stomach
PARASYMPATHETICInhibit release of glucose
PARASYMPATHETICStimulate gallbladder
PARASYMPATHETICStimulate activity of intestines
PARASYMPATHETICPromote erection or genitals
SYMPATHETICInhibit salivation
SYMPATHETICIncrease heartbeat
SYMPATHETICRelax airways
SYMPATHETICInhibit activity of stomach
SYMPATHETICStimulate release of glucose
SYMPATHETICInhibit gallbladder
SYMPATHETICInhibit activity of intestines
SYMPATHETICSecrete epinephrine & norepinephrine
SYMPATHETICRelax bladder
SYMPATHETICPromote ejaculation and vaginal contraction


Question Answer
Neuronsare the basic units of the nervous system
NeuronsDecide whether to transmit signal or not
Dendrite, Cell Body, Axon, Axon TerminalsPARTS OF NEURON
Dendritereceives information from axon to terminals of another neuron
Cell Bodycontains the nucleus
Cell BodyIs the site of the synthesis of all neuronal proteins and membranes
Axoncarry information “long” distances
Axonal Terminalstransmit information
Synapseattachment of axon and dendrite
Proteinused to repair nucleus or some portion of neurons
Braincenter of all functions
Spinal cordbridges the brain to the peripheral nerves
Meningesterm for the covering of the brain
(1) Dura Mater, (2) Arachnoid Mater, (3) Pia Mater3 MENINGES OF THE BRAIN
Dura MaterOuter covering of the brain
Arachnoid MaterMiddle covering of the brain
Pia MaterInner covering of the brain
Cerebellumpart of the brain that is for balance and coordination
CerebellumIt is for higher mental operations
CerebellumLocation: Occipital
ThalamusDirects sensory messages to appropriate higher centers
HypothalamusResponsible for emotion
HypothalamusSends out chemicals that tell the pituitary gland
Limbic SystemPathways involved in pleasure and emotions
AmygdalaUsed for evaluating sensory information
Hippocampus“Gateway to memory”
HippocampusFormation of long-term memories for facts and events
Cerebrum is divided into 2 cerebral hemispheres
CerebrumCovered by thin layers of cells known collectively as the cerebral cortex
Spinal Cordtransmits impulses to and from the brain and controls some reflex actions
Spinal CordAlso protected by meninges like the brain
Spinal CordHas 31 segments with pairs (left & right) nerves carrying sensory and efferent information


Question Answer
OlfactorySensory for the sense of smell
OpticSensory for the sense of sight
OcculomotorNerves controls muscle of the eye
TrochlearControls muscles of the eye
(1) Ophthamic branches, (2) Maxillary branches, (3) Mandibular branches3 BRANCHES/DIVISIONS of TRIGEMINAL
Ophthamic branchesgo to the eyes & forehead
Maxillary branchesgo to the upper jaw & innervate the teeth & surrounding tissues
Mandibular branchesgo to the lower jaw & innervate the teeth & surrounding tissues
AbducensControls muscles of the eyes
FacialInnervate the muscle of facial expression, salivary glands, lacrimal glands & sense of taste on the anterior 2/3 of the tongue
Acoustic“Vestibucochlear Nerve” – other term
Cochlear branch & Vestibular branchTWO BRANCHES OF ACOUSTIC
Cochlear branchconcerned with sense of hearing
Vestibular branchconcerned with sense of balance
GlossopharyngalInnervate the parotid glands, sense of taste on the posterior third of the tongue and part of the pharynx
GlossopharyngalProduction of saliva
Spinal AccessoryInnervate part of the pharynx, larynx and vocal cords
Spinal AccessoryPart of the thoracic and abdominal viscera
Spinal AccessoryInnervate the shoulder muscles
Spinal AccessoryInclude breathing when the shoulder moves
HypoglossalInnervate the muscles concerned with the movements of the tongue
HypoglossalFound below the tongue


Question Answer
GlossopharyngalSENSORY & MOTOR
Spinal AccessoryMOTOR


Question Answer
Alzheimer’s diseaseDeterioration of memory, thinking, and reasoning
Amytrophic Lateral ScierosisResulting in the loss of ability to move any muscles in the body
Carpal Tunnel SyndromeCompression at the wrist of the median nerve supplying the hand, causing numbness & tingling
Epilepsymarked by seizures that often involve convulsions or the loss of consciousness
Huntington’s diseaseUncontrollable physical movements and mental deterioration
PoliomyelitisContagious viral disease caused by damage to the CNS, resulting in paralysis & loss of muscle tissue
Migraineparticularly intense form of headache
Parkinson’s diseasecells in one of the movement-control centers of the brain begin to die, resulting in a loss of control over speech and head & body movements
Guillain-Barre SyndromeAn ascending limb weakness and numbness I the extremities that can progress, in some cases, to paralysis
Guillain-Barre SyndromeAffects the axon and myelin sheaths
Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA)“Stroke”
Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA)The result of a ruptured blood vessel supplying a region of the brain
Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA)Brain tissue supplied with oxygen from the blood source dies
Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA)Loss of some functions or may result to death


Question Answer
Chemoreceptorsspecific receptor cells involved with taste and smell
Tasterespond to chemicals in an aqueous solution
Tastefood dissolved in saliva
Tasteairborne chemicals dissolved in mucous membrane
Bitter, Salty, Sour, Sweet, Umami (Savory)5 Basic Tastes
Facial nerve (afferent)2/3 anterior portion of tongue
Glossophyngeal nerveposterior 1/3 of tongue
Vagus nervefew taste buds on epiglottis and pharynx
Taste budsidentify tastes in our tongue
Tastetriggers reflex involved in digestion
Tastecauses an increase of saliva in mouth (amylase) and gastric juice in stomach
Gagging or reflexive vomitingBad tasting food causes this
Anosmiasloss sense of smell which may lead to lose taste
AnosmiasMay be genetic or a cold (mucus), allergy, zinc deficiency
AnosmiasMay cause uncinate & olfactory auras
Uncinateolfactory hallucinations; may be psychological ex. rotting meat smell


Question Answer
Tuniccovering of the eyes
Fibrous Tunic, Vascular Tunic & Sensory TunicTHREE TYPES OF TUNIC
Fibrous Tunicsclera and cornea (outer most layer)
Fibrous TunicComposed of dense avascuiar connective tissue
Fibrous TunicThis is the yellow covering of the eyes
Vascular tunicuvea: choroid, cilliary body, iris, pupil (middle layer)
Sensory tunicretina (inner most layer)
(1) Choroid, (2) Cilliary Body, (3) Iris, (4) PupilPARTS OF THE VASCULAR TUNIC
Choroidrich vascular nutritive layer; contains a dark pigment that prevents light scattering within the eye
Cilliary bodylens is attached; contains muscles that change the lenses shape
Irispigmented ring of muscular tissue composed of circular and radial muscles
Pupilcentral hole in iris
(1) Rods, (2) Cones, (3) Optic Disc, (4) Macula lutea, (5) Fovea centralis5 PHOTORECEPTORS


Question Answer
Rodsdim light, contains pigment rhodopsin
RodsPerception is all in gray tones
Rodsmore sensitive to light, do not respond in bright light
Conescolor vision, not evenly distributed, concentrated in fovea
ConesDensest in the center of the retina
ConesRespond best in bright light
Optic Disc blind spot because its where optic nerve leaves the eyeball
Optic Disc no rods or cones
Macula luteayellow spot, area of high cone
Fovea centralisin center of macula lutea, contains only cones, area of greatest visual acuity
Fovea centralisarea of the retina with only cones


Question Answer
Vitreous Humorbehind lens, gel-like substance
Vitreous Humortransmits light
Vitreous Humorsupports the posterior surface of the lens and holds the neural retina
Vitreous Humorcontributes to intraoccular pressure
Aqueous humorin front of lens, anterior segment, watery fluid
Aqueous humorSupplies cornea and lens with nutrients
Aqueous humorHelps to maintain the shape of the eye
Aqueous humorProduced and renewed every 4 hours by the ciliary body
Lenstransparent biconvex structure, flexible
LensAttached by suspensory ligaments to ciliary body
Lensfocuses image onto retina
Lenschanges lens thickness to allow light to be properly focused onto retina
LensAdjustment to distance


Question Answer
Myopiaclose objects look clear but distant objects appear blurred
Hyperopiacan see distant objects very well, but have difficulty focusing on objects that are up close.
EmmetropiaNormal 20:20
PresbyopiaMature eyes
Presbyopiacaused by loss of elasticity of the lens of the eye, occurring typically in middle and old age.
Astigmatismblurry vision
AstigmatismIt occurs when the cornea (the clear front cover of the eye) is irregularly shaped or sometimes because of the curvature of the lens inside the eye.
Cataractclouding of lens (hardening or thickening)
CataractCauses: Diabetes mellitus, smoking, UV damage
Concave LensesUsed to correct myopia
Convex LensesUsed to correct hyperopia


Question Answer
Outer earpinna (auricle), lobule, external auditory canal; elastic cartilage
Pinna (auricle)collects sound
External auditory canalchannels sound inward
Ceruminous glandswax secreting glands
Ceruminous glandsprotects delicate lining of meatus
Ceruminous glandshelps prevent microorganisms from entering the ear
Tympanic membranemembrane that vibrates in response to sound waves
Tympanic membraneAlso called the eardrums
Inner earbony labyrinth filled with perilymph fluid (similar to CFS) and membranous labyrinth filled with endolymph fluid, these fluids conduct sound vibrations


Question Answer
Hearing lossDue to disease, damage or age-related
Conduction deafnessPrevention or blocking sounds from entering ear
Sensoneural deafnessDamage to neural structures from any point from the cochlear hair cells
Sensoneural deafnessPartial or complete deafness, or gradual loss over time
Tinnitusringing or clicking sound in the absence of auditory stimuli
TinnitusMay result from inflammation of the inner or middle ear
Meniere’s Syndromelabyrinth disorder
Meniere’s SyndromeEffects both semicircular canals & cochlea
Snellan Eye Chartto determine if one has an eye problem
Ishihara TestTest to determine if one is color blind


Question Answer
PhotoreceptorsReceptors of sight
MechanoreceptorsReceptors of Hearing and equilibrium
Eyelidsbrush particles out of eye or cover eye
Eyelashestrap particles and keep them out of the eye
Lacrimal glandproduces lacrimal fluid
Lacrimal canalsdrains lacrimal fluid from eyes
Extrinsic Eye MusclesMuscles attach to the outer surface of the eye
Extrinsic Eye MusclesProduce eye movements
ScleraWhite connective tissue layer


Question Answer
Superior obliqueeyes look out and down
Superior rectuseyes looks up
Lateral rectuseyes look outward
Medial rectuseyes look inward
Inferior rectuseyes looks down
Inferior obliqueeyes look in and up
Sensory Tunic (Retina)Contains receptor cells (photoreceptors)