baejuhyeoned's version from 2018-10-02 17:47



Question Answer
(1) Cover and protects the body, (2) Regulate Body Temperature, (3) Excretes Wastes, (4) Reduces water loss, (5) Houses sensory receptors5 FUNCTIONS of INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
Cover and protects the bodyProtects us from Pathogens, Injury & UV radiation
(1)Sweating, (2) Dilate/constrict of blood vessels, (3) Goosebumps3 ways to regulate temperature
Skin constricts to get closer to the body (to maintain body temperatureWHEN COLD Skin _________
Skin does not constrictWHEN HOT Skin _________
Urea as sweatis the waste excreted
Epidermis & Dermis2 MAIN LAYERS OF SKIN
Epidermisouter (surface) layers of skin
Epidermis10-30 cells thick
(1) Inner & (2) OuterTwo parts of Epidermis
EPIDERMIS - Inner layerIn the lowest layer, cells reproduce and push older cells toward the surface (Basale region)
EPIDERMIS - Inner layerAs the cells near the surface, they flatten and their organelles disintegrate (Granulosum)
EPIDERMIS - Inner layerProduction of keratins (spinosum)
EPIDERMIS - Inner layerThis replaces cytoplasm
EPIDERMIS - Outer layerThe Keratin producing cells die as they move toward the surface
EPIDERMIS - Outer layerOuter dead layer waterproofs and protects inner layers
EPIDERMIS - Outer layerIt is shed continually and is completely replaced in 2-4 weeks
(1) Stratum Corneum, (2) Stratum Lucidum, (3) Stratum Granulosum, (4) Stratum Spinosum, (5) Stratum Basale5 Epidermis layers
Melanin, Carotene & Hemoglobin3 TYPES OF SKIN PIGMENT
Melanocytescells that produce melanin
Melanindark brown pigment
MelaninProduced at the base of the epidermis
Melaninimportant for proper functioning of photoreceptors
MelaninGives skin its color
MelaninProtects skin from UV radiation
CaroteneYellow to Orange pigment
Carotenefrom carrots and yellow vegies
CaroteneNot easily noticeable unless large amounts are consumed
Blood (Hemoglobin)pink to red pigment
Blood (Hemoglobin)Shade depends on dilation of vessels
Blood (Hemoglobin)Continued constriction may lead to Cyanosis
Cyanosisa bluish discoloration of the skin resulting from poor circulation or inadequate oxygenation of the blood.
(1) Eumelanin, (2) Phaeomelanin2 types of MELANIN
Eumelaninproduces dark pigments
Phaeomelaninproduces lighter pigments and freckles
DERMISDeeper layer of skin that is 10-20 times thicker than epidermis
DERMISTop layer arranged in in ridges
For attachment of epidermis and dermisWhy are there ridges?
FingerprintsThe uneven ridges create _________
(1) Hair Follicles, (2) Sebaceous glands, (3) Nails, (4) Sweat Glands, (5) Blood Vessels, (6) Nerves, (7) Erector Pilli Muscle7 ACCESSORY ORGANS
Hair folliclestube like depression where the hair develops
Sebaceous glandssecrete oily sebum to soften and waterproof skin
Nailsprotective covers of end of fingers and toes
Sweat glandssecrete waste
Sweat glandsRegulate heat
Sweat glandsProduces ear wax
Sweat glandsProduces milk during lactation
Blood vesselsto nourish skin cells
Nervesto send and receive messages
Erector Pilli Musclesmooth muscles that causes goosebumps
Erector Pilli MuscleCauses hair to stand erect
SUBCUTANEOUS LAYERAnchors dermis to the body
SUBCUTANEOUS LAYERContains fat cells to protect and cushion
Acneinfection of sebaceous glands
Benign tumorfleshy growths on neck, armpits and body. This is harmless
Vascular BirthmarksBlood vessel abnormality affecting 0.5% of population that darkens skin
Dermatitisdry and sensitive skin
Fungal InfectionsExamples are Athlete’s foot & Ringworm
Impetigobacterial infection
Psoriasischronic inflammation
CancerExamples are Carcinoma & Melanoma
Wartsviral infection
(1) First degree, (2) Second degree, (3) Third degree, (4)Types of Burns
First degreeEpidermis (burn)
Second degreeEpidermis & Dermis (burn)
Third degreeEpidermis, Dermis & Subcutaneous (burn)
Fourth degreeexposure to bone (burn)
(1) Protection, (2) Regulation of body temperature, (3) Facilitation of evaporation of perspiration3 FUNCTIONS OF HAIR
(1) Sebaceous, (2) Apocrince, (3) Eccrine3 TYPES OF GLANDS
Sebaceous glandsSecrete oily sebum
Sebaceous glandsProtects skin from drying out
Sebaceous glandsInhibits bacterial growth
Sebaceous glandsGland that is widely distributed
Apocrine glandsFound in armpit & Groin
Apocrine glandsConnected to hair follicles
Merocrine (Eccrine) glandsSecrete sweat
Merocrine (Eccrine) glandsAid in thermoregulation
100 trillionthe number of cells in body
16%Percentage of our body weight that is skin
27number of days that our skin is completely renewed
6 monthsnumber of months that it takes for our fingernail or toenail grows from base to tip
FingernailsWhich nail grows faster?
100,00 hairsHow many hairs does an average human scalp have?
Fingerprintsprovide traction for grasping objects
Cell division to increaseFriction of epidermis causes ___________
CallousOutward thickening of skin
Corninward growth of skin
(1) Whorl, (2) Arc, (3) Loop (4) Composite4 types of fingerprints


Question Answer
Stratum BasaleIn the lowest layer, cells reproduce and push older cells toward the surface
Stratum GranulosumAs the cells near the surface, they flatten and their organelles disintegrate ()
Stratum SpinosumProduction of keratins
Stratum CorneumOutermost layer of epidermis
Stratum CorneumCells are dead in this epidermis layer
Stratum BasaleDeepest layer of the epidermis
Stratum Basale found closest to the dermal blood supply


Question Answer
THICK SKINNo hair follicles
THICK SKINNo apocrine sweat glands
THICK SKINNo oil glands
THICK SKINHas all 5 epidermis layer
THICK SKINPalms and fingers of hands, Sole of feet and external genitalia including nipples
THIN SKINHas hair follicles
THIN SKINHas fewer eccrine/merocrine sweat glands
THIN SKINHas oil glands
THIN SKINAll epidermal layers except lucidum
THIN SKINEverywhere except palms & sole


Question Answer
(1) Support, (2) Protection, (3) Movement, (4) Mineral Storage, (5) Blood cell formation5 FUNCTIONS of SKELETAL SYSTEM
Supportframework that supports body and cradles its soft organs
Protectionfor delicate organs, heart, lungs, brain
Movementbone acts as lever for muscles
Mineral StorageCalcium & Phosphate
Blood cell formationHematopoiesis
Hematopoiesisthe production of blood cells and platelets which occurs in the bone marrow
206How many bones
126How many appendicular bones
80How many axial Bones
Axial SkeletonConsists of the bones that’s lie around the longitudinal axis of the human body
Axial SkeletonSkull bones, auditory ossicles, hyoid bone, ribs, sternum, bones of vertebral column
Appendicular SkeletonConsists of upper and lower limbs (extremities) and bones forming girdle that connect limbs to axial skeleton
(1) Long Bones, (2) Short bones, (3) Flat bones, (4) Irregular Bones, (5) Sesamoid, (6) SuturalTYPES/CLASSIFICATION OF BONES
Long Bonesbones that are greater in length than in width and are often slightly curved for the purpose of weight bearing
Short bonesBones that are cube shaped
Flat bonesAre thin & composed of two nearly parallel plates of compact bone enclosing a layer of spongy bone
Irregular bonesInclude complex shapes like the vertebrae & some facial bones
Sesamoid bonesVary in number and protect tendons from excessive wear
Sesamoid bonesCan develop fractures due to friction, tension & stress
Sutural BonesAlso known as Wormian Bones
Sutural BonesLocated within the sutures of cranial bones
(1) Depression & Openings & (2) ProcessesTWO TYPES OF SURFACE MARKINGS


Question Answer
Depressions & OpeningsAllow passage of blood vessels and nerves
Depressions & OpeningsForm Joints
ProcessesProjections or outgrowths that form joints
ProcessesServe as the attachment points for ligaments and tendons
ProcessAny projection of bone (large or small)
Spinous ProcessSlender projection from vertebrae
Foramenopening in bone through which blood vessels and/or nerves pass
CondyleBony process that is large, round and articular
(1) Trochlea & CapitulumCondyles of Humerus
Epicondyleis a bony protuberance above a condyle
FossaShallow depression in bone
Tuberclesmall rounded projection
TuberosityLarge bony prominence that is not articular
Meatustube-like canal
Trochanterstwo very large bony projections on the femur
SulcusFurrow along the bone surface that accommodates blood vessel and nerves
FissureNarrow slit between adjacent parts of bones through which blood vessels or nerves pass
CrestProminent ridge or elongated projection
FacetSmooth, flat, slightly concave or convex articular surface
HeadUsually rounded articular projection supported on neck (constricted portion) of bone


Question Answer
LacrimalHouses the lacrimal glands
Mandibleis the only bone detached to face
Hyoid BoneU shaped bone found in neck
(1) Manubrium, (2) Body of Sternum, (3) Xiphoid Process3 parts of Sternum
True RibsRibs that are directly attached to sternum
1-7th ribwhich are True Ribs
False RibsRibs that are indirectly attached to sternum
False RibsAttached to the 7th rib
8-10th ribwhich are false Ribs
11-12which are floating ribs
Floating ribsNot attached to sternum
(1) Scoliosis, (2) Lordosis, (3) Kyphosis3 abnormalities of Verterbrae
ScoliosisS or C shaped curvature of spine
Lordosisexcessive inward curve of the spine.
Kyphosisexcessive outward curvature of the spine


Question Answer
Long BonesFemur
Long BonesTibia
Long BonesFibula
Long BonesHumerus
Long BonesUlna
Long BonesRadius
Long BonesMetacarpals
Long BonesMetatarsals
Long BonesPhalanges
Short BonesCarpals
Short BonesTarsals
Flat bonesCranial bones
Flat bonesRibs
Flat bonesSternum
Flat bonesScapulae
Flat bonesClavicle
Flat bonesPelvic
Irregular BonesMandible
Irregular BonesSphenoid
Irregular BonesHammer
Short bonesHamate
Irregular BonesStapes
Sesamoid BonesPatella
Irregular BonesZygomatic
Irregular BonesCervical Vertebrae


Question Answer
8Cranium Bones
1Frontal bone
1Occipital Bone
2Parietal Bone
2Temporal Bone
1Sphenoid Bone
1Ethmoid Bone
14Facial Bones
2Nasal Bone
2Zygomatic Bone
2Inferior Nasal Conchae
3 on each ear, 6Auditory Ossicles
1Hyoid Bone
7True ribs
2False Ribs
2Floating Ribs
64Upper Extremities
16, 8 on each handCarpals
10, 5 on each handMetacarpals
28, 14 on each handPhalanges
62Upper Extremities
14 Tarsal
10 Metatarsal

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