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ANAPHY MIDTERMS pt 2

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baejuhyeoned's version from 2018-10-02 19:11

MUSCULAR SYSTEM

Question Answer
All movement of the bodyWhat are muscles responsible for?
ElongatedSkeletal and smooth muscle are ______
Movement of microfilaments/protein fibersContraction of muscle is due to the
SarcoPrefix for flesh
Myo/Mysprefix for muscle
MyoplastySurgical repair of muscle
MyoparesisMuscle Paralysis
SarcomereContractile unit of muscle
SarcolemaMuscle cell membrane
(1) Skeletal, (2) Smooth, (3) Cardiac 3 TYPES OF MUSCLE
Tendonsbinds muscle to bones
Ligamentsbinds muscle to another muscle
40 into 10 regional areas divisionsHow many anterior superficial
27 into 7 regional areas divisionsHow many posterior superficial
(1) Protein & (2) WaterMuscle is made out of _______
17 musclesHow many muscles used to smile
42How many muscles used to frown
EyeHardest working muscle
memorize

 

Question Answer
Skeletal MuscleMost are attached by tendons to bones
Skeletal MuscleCylindrical fibers
Skeletal MuscleStriated, multinucleated and voluntary
Skeletal MuscleProduce movement, maintain posture, generate heat, stabilize joints
Skeletal Muscle650 of these muscles
Skeletal MuscleEx. Biceps, Triceps, Pectoralis Major, etc
Smooth MuscleElongated, spindle shaped fiber
Smooth MuscleStriated, 1 nucleus and involuntary
Smooth MuscleFound in the walls of hollow organs/viscera
Smooth MuscleEx. G.I. tract, Wall of blood vessels, Respiratory tract, Reproductive tract
Smooth MuscleLine walls of viscera
Smooth MuscleFound in longitudinal or circular arrangement
Smooth MuscleAlternate contraction of circular & longitudinal muscle in the intestine leads to peristalsis
Cardiac MuscleNot striated, 1 nucleus and involuntary
Cardiac MuscleBranching cells
Cardiac MuscleFound only in the heart
Cardiac MuscleMain muscle of heart
Cardiac MusclePumping mass of heart
Cardiac MuscleHeart muscles behave as one unit
Cardiac MuscleHeart always contracts to its full extent
Cardiac MuscleIntercalated discs
memorize

 

Question Answer
Peristalsisis a wave of muscular contractions that push bolus down towards the stomach
(1) Twitch & (2) Tetanus2 TYPES OF RESPONSES
Twitchsingle brief contraction
TwitchNot a normal muscle function
TetanusOne contraction immediately followed by another
TetanusMuscle never completely returns to a relaxed state
(1) Energy is stored in the muscles in the form of ATP, (2) ATP comes from the breakdown of glucose during Cellular Respiration, (3) This all happens in the Mitochondria of the cell, (4) When a muscle is fatigued (tired) it is unable to contract because of lack of OxygenWHERE DOES THE ENERGY COME FROM?
Isotonic muscles shorten and movement occurs ( most normal exercise)
Isometrictension in muscles increases, no movement occurs (pushing one hand against the other)
(1) Agonist, (2) Antagonist, (3) Synergist, (4) Fixators4 MUSCLE GROUPS
Agonist“prime movers”
Antagonistopposes/reverses movement regulation of contraction
Synergist“extra” to agonist action
SynergistReducing/dampening unnecessary motion
Fixators“immobilize” a bone or bone’s origin
(1) Location of muscle, (2) Shape, (3) Relative Size, (4) Direction of Fibers, (5) Number of origins, (6) Location of attachments, (7) Action7 NAMING SKELETAL MUSCLES
Location of muscleBone or body region associated with muscle
Shape of muscleEx. Deltoid muscle (deltoid = triangular)
Relative SizeEx. Maximus (largest), minimus (smallest), longus (long)
Direction of FibersRectus – fibers that run straight
Direction of FibersTransversus
Direction of FibersOblique – fibers run at angles to an imaginary axis
Obliquefibers run at angles to an imaginary axis
Rectusfibers that run straight
Number of OriginsBiceps – two origins
Number of OriginsTriceps – three origins
Location of attachmentsNamed according to point of origin or insertion
ActionEx. Flexor or extensor, as on the names of muscles that flex, extend respectively
(1) Convergent, (2) Circular, (3) Parallel, (4) Pennate4 ARRANGEMENTS OF FASCICLES
Convergentfascicles converge from a broad origin to a single tendon insertion (eg. Pectoralis Major)
CircularFascicles are arranged in concentric rings (eg. Orbicularis oris)
Parallelfascicles run parallel to the long axis of the muscle (eg. Sartorius)
Fusiformspindle-shaped muscles that appear to be same to parallel
PennateShort fascicles that attach obliquely to a central tendon running the length of the muscle (eg. Rectus femoris)
(1) Insertion & (2) Origin2 TYPES OF MUSCLE ATTACHMENTS
Insertionthe attachment of a muscle’s tendon to the stationary bone
InsertionAttachment that moves the most
OriginThe attachment of the muscle’s other tendon to the movable bone
OriginAttachment that moves the least
FlexionDuring this movement, the angle of joint is decreased
ExtensionDuring this movement, the angle of joint is increased
ExtensionThe opposite of flexion
Hyperextensionwhen joint is extended past the anatomical position
AbductionRefers to moving away from the medial plane
Adductionmovement towards the median plane
Circumductionrefers to inscribing a circle while moving a limb
RotatingTurning a bone on its own axis
InversionTurn sole of foot medially
Eversionturn sole of foot laterally
Pronationpalm facing down
Supinationpalm facing up
Oppositionthumb touches tips of fingers on the same hand
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Question Answer
Deltoids Shoulder muscles
Deltoids Side body lifting
Deltoids Provide support when you carry things
BicepsControl motion of shoulder and elbow joints
BicepsEssential in lifting & moving arm sideways
BicepsForearm rotation
TricepsShoulder stabilization
TricepsStraighten elbow
TricepsPassing & Shooting in Basketball
TricepsFine line movements, write or draw
PectoralsInvolved in shoulder joint movements
PectoralsActivated when reaching across your body
PectoralsBehind yourself
AbdominalsAssist in breathing process
AbdominalsHelps protect inner organs
Abdominals & ObliquesTwisting motions
Abdominals & ObliquesBending over
Abdominals & ObliquesMaintaining good posture
TrapeziusTilt and turn head
TrapeziusShrug shoulders
TrapeziusLift items over your head
Latissimus DorsiPulling movement
Latissimus DorsiSwimming
Erector SpinaeExtend the spine
Erector SpinaeBending forward & sideways
GlutealsKey in movement backwards & sideways
GlutealsMaintain balance
HamstringsBend knees
HamstringsPropel body forward, walking, running & jumping
Gastrocnemius/CalfLift heels up
QuadricepsStraighten legs
QuadricepsStabilize knee joint
QuadricepsHip rotation
memorize

 

Question Answer
SternocleidomastoideusFlexes and Rotates Head
SternocleidomastoideusFirst origin: Manubrium or Sternum
SternocleidomastoideusSecond Origin: Clavicle
SternocleidomastoideusThe insertion is on the mastoid process of the skull
SternocleidomastoideusContraction of both this muscles will flex the head
MasseterElevate Mandible
Masseterone of major chewing muscles
MasseterOrigin: Zygomatic Arch
TemporalisElevate & Retract Mandible
TrapeziusExtend Head, Adduct, Elevate or Depress Scapula
Trapeziusa large muscle in the upper back
TrapeziusIt attaches to the skull, shoulder and vertebrae of the back
Latissimus DorsiExtend, Adduct & Rotate Arm Medially
Latissimus Dorsiis a large muscle in the back
Latissimus Dorsioften referred to as a lat
Latissimus DorsiOrigins: Vertebrae, Illium Ribs, Scapulae
Latissimus DorsiInsertion: Humerus
Latissimus Dorsiis the main muscle used in movement such as pounding a nail with a hammer.
DeltoidAbduct, Flex & Extend Arm
Deltoidcovers the shoulder and has the shape of a delta
DeltoidOrigins: Scapulae & Clavicle
Pectoralis MajorFlexes, adducts & rotates arm medially
Pectoralis Majoris a large muscle in the pectoral region of the body
Pectoralis MajorOrigins: Clavicle & Sternum
Pectoralis MajorInsertion: greater tubercle of the humerus
Pectoralis Majoris used in movements such a climbing, throwing and doing pushups.
Biceps BrachiiFlexes Elbow Joint
Biceps Brachiilocated on the anterior side of the upper arm
Biceps BrachiiOrigins: corocoid process & Glenoid cavity of the scapula
Biceps BrachiiIt inserts on the radial tuberosity.
Triceps BrachiiExtend Elbow Joint
Triceps Brachiiis on the back of the upper arm
Triceps BrachiiOrigins: 2 in back humerus & 1 on scapulae
Triceps Brachiitriceps inserts on the olecranon.
Rectus AbdominusFlexes Abdomen
Rectus Abdominusis a long muscle in the abdomen
Rectus AbdominusThe muscle originates on the pubis.
Rectus AbdominusIt inserts on the xiphoid process of the sternum and also on cartilage of the ribs.
External ObliqueCompress Abdomen
External ObliqueIt has muscle fibers that run in an oblique direction across the abdomen.
External IntercostalsElevate ribs
Internal IntercostalsDepress ribs
DiaphragmInspiration
DiaphragmThis muscle separates the abdominal cavity from the thoracic cavity
Flexor carpiFlexes wrist
Extensor carpi—Extends wrist
Flexor digitorumFlexes fingers
Extensor digitorumExtends fingers
PronatorPronates
SupinatorSupinates
Gluteus MaximusExtends & Rotates Thigh Laterally
Gluteus MaximusOrigin: ilium, sacrum and coccyx
Gluteus MaximusIt inserts on the gluteal tuberosity of the femur
Gluteus Maximuslarge muscle on the posterior side of the body at the top of each leg
Rectus FemorisFlexes Thigh, Extends Lower Leg
Rectus Femorislocated on the anterior side of the thigh
Rectus FemorisOrigin: Illium
Rectus FemorisInsertion: Patella & Tibial Tuberosity
GracilisAdducts and Flexes Thigh
Gracilisis on the medial side of the thigh
SartoriusFlexes Thigh, & Rotates Thigh Laterally
SartoriusOrigin: the anterior superior iliac spine of the ilium
SartoriusInsertion: medial side of the tibia
SartoriusThis is the muscle used when crossing the legs to sit on the floor
Biceps FemorisExtends Thigh & Flexes Lower Leg
Biceps Femorisone of the hamstring muscles
Biceps FemorisOrigin: ischial tuberosity
Biceps Femorisinserts on the tibia and fibula
GastrocnemiusPlantar Flexes Foot & Flex Lower Leg
Gastrocnemiuscommonly called the calf muscle
GastrocnemiusOrigin: distal end of the femur
GastrocnemiusInsertion: calcaneus bone of the foot
Tibialis AnteriorDorsiflexes and Inverts Foot
Tibialis Anteriorlocated on the anterior side of the tibia
memorize