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Question Answer
Anatomy science of structure
Anatomy relationships revealed by dissection
Dissectionthe careful cutting apart of body structures to study their relationships
Embryology Study of the first eight weeks of development after fertilization of a human egg.
Developmental Biology Study of the complete development of an individual from fertilization to death
Cell Biology Study of cellular structure and functions
HistologyStudy of microscopic structure of tissues
Gross Anatomy Study of structures that can be examined without a microscope
Zygotefertilized egg
Systemic Anatomy Study of structure of specific systems of the human body
Regional AnatomyStudy of specific regions of the body such as head or chest
Surface Anatomy Study of surface markings of the body to understand internal anatomy through visualization and palpation
Radiographic Anatomy Study of body structures that can be visualized with X-Ray
Pathological Anatomy Study of structure changes associated with disease
Physiology science of body functions
Physiology How body parts work
Physiology the study of how body structures function
NeurophysiologyStudy of functional properties of nerve cells
Endocrinology Study of hormones and how they control body functions
Cardiovascular Physiology Study of functions of the heart and blood vessels
ImmunologyStudy of the body's defenses against disease causing agents
Respiratory Physiology Study of the air passageways and lungs
Renal Physiology Study of functions of the kidneys
Exercise Physiology Study of changes in cell and organ functions due to muscular activity
PathophysiologyStudy of functional changes associated with disease and aging
(1) Chemical Level, (2) Cells, (3) Tissues, (4) Organs, (5) Organ Systems5 Structural Organization of Matter
Atoms and Molecules2 Chemical Levels
Proton, Neutron, Electron3 Atoms
Moleculestwo or more atoms joined together by either covalent or ionic bonds
Cellssmallest structural and functional units of the human body
Tissuesgroup of cells and the materials surrounding them that work together to perform a particular function
Organscomposed of two or more tissues working together to provide specific functions and they usually have specific shapes
Organ Systemsconsist of one or more organs that provide a common function
(1) Metabolism, (2) Responsiveness, (3) Movement, (4) Growth, (5) Differentiation, (6) Reproduction6 Basic Life Processes
Metabolismsum of all biochemical of cells, tissues, organs and organ systems
Responsivenessability to detect and respond to changes in the internal and external environments
Movementoccurs at the intracellular, organ levels
Growthincrease in numbers of cells, size of cells, tissues, organs and the body.
Differentiationprocess a cell undergoes to develop from an unspecialized to a specialized cell
ReproductionFormation of new cells for growth, repair, or replacement or the production of a new
Homeostasisequilibrium of the body’s internal environment produced by the interaction of organ systems and regulatory processes (feedback system)
Homeostasisis a dynamic condition in response to changing conditions
Homeostasisbody systems that largely control the body's homeostatic state: Nervous system & Endocrine system
Homeostatic Imbalancesdisruption of homeostasis can lead to disease and death.
Disorderis a general term for any change or abnormality of function.
Diseaseis a more specific term for an illness characterized by a recognizable set of signs and symptoms.
(1) Local disease, (2) Systemic Disease2 types of disease
Local diseaseis one that affects one part or a limited region of the body
Systemic diseaseaffects either the entire body or several body parts
Signsare objective changes that a clinician can observe and measure; e.g., fever or rash.
Symptomsare subjective changes in body functions that are not apparent to an observer, e.g., headache or nausea.
Diagnosisis the art of distinguishing one disease from another or determining the nature of a disease
Integumentary Systemconsists of the skin and related structures (hair, nails, and glands)
Integumentary SystemProtects body, regulates temperature, and eliminates wastes through sweat and other secretions
Skeletal Systemconsists of the bones and joints
Skeletal SystemProvides protection and support
Skeletal SystemHouses cells that will become red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
Muscular Systemconsists of skeletal muscles, smooth muscle and cardiac muscle.
Muscular SystemFacilitate movement and maintain posture
Muscular SystemGenerates the heat necessary for warm-blooded organisms to maintain a constant body temp.
Nervous Systemconsists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory organs
Nervous SystemSenses and responds to body conditions through nerve impulses
Endocrine Systemconsists of hormone producing cells and glands scattered throughout the body
Endocrine SystemRegulates the body through chemical mechanisms (by releasing hormones into the blood)
Cardiovascularconsists of the heart, blood, and blood vessels.
CardiovascularCarries blood and nutrients to specific locations
CardiovascularRegulates body temperature and water balance
Lymphatic System and Immunityconsists of the lymphatic fluid, lymph nodes, and lymphocytes - and the other associated organs of the immune system like the tonsils, spleen and thymus gland.
Lymphatic System and ImmunityTransports fats and proteins to the cardiovascular system
Lymphatic System and ImmunityFilters blood and protects against disease
Respiratory Systemconsists of the upper airways, the trachea and major bronchi and the lungs
Respiratory SystemExtracts O, and eliminates CO2
Respiratory SystemIn conjunction with the kidneys, regulates acid/base balance’
Digestive Systemconsists of the esophagus, stomach and intestines, and the accessory digestive glands like the salivary glands, liver, and gallbladder.
Digestive SystemAccomplishes the physical and chemical breakdown of food and elimination of waste
Urinary Systemconsists of the kidneys ureters, bladder, and urethra.
Urinary SystemInvolved in the collection and excretion of waste products in urine, and the regulation of fluid, electrolyte, & acid/base balance
Reproductive Systemconsists of the ovaries, uterus and vagina in the female, and the testes and penis in the male (along with associated organs and glands in both sexes).


Question Answer
VisceralCovering over an organ
Parietacovering against a cavity wall
PlantarSole of foot
PatellarFront of knee
Body planesimaginary flat surfaces that separate the body or body parts into portion
Sagittal, Parasagittal, Frontal, Transverse4 Major planes
Sagittaldivide body into equal left & right sides
Parasagittaldivide body into unequal halves
Frontaldivide body into anterior & posterior
Transversedivide body into superior and inferior
Oblique PlanesThe body can be divided into an infinite number of ____________ that pass through the body or organ at an angle
Ventral & Dorsal2 Major Body cavities
DorsalBack of the body
Cranialformed by cranial bones; protects the brain
Vertebral canalformed by bones of vertebral column; contains spinal cord
MeningesLayers of protective tissue that line the cranial and vertebral canal
Ventralfront of the body
Thoracicformed by sternum, ribs and thoracic portion of the bony vertebral column.
ThoracicAlso called chest cavity
ThoracicStabilized by the internal and external muscles of the chest
Mediastinallocated in the central part of the thoracic cavity
Pleural cavityTwo fluid-filled spaces that surround each lung
Pericardialis itself located within the middle part of the mediastinal in the thoracic
PericardialFluid-filled space that surrounds heart
Abdominopelvicextends from the diaphragm to the groin
AbdominopelvicIs encircled by the abdominal walls and muscles of pelvis
Abdominal cavity & Pelvic CavitySubdivisions of Abdominopelvic cavity
(1) Mediastinal, (2) Pleural, (3) PericardialSubdivisions of Thoracic cavity
Thoracic & AbdominopelvicSubdivisions of Ventral Cavity
(1) Cranial, (2) Vertebral, (3) MeningesSubdivisions of Dorsal Cavity
Serous Membranesthin, double layered membrane; thoracic & abdominal
Serous MembranesAdhere to the outer surface of organs or viscera and then double back on themselves to line the body cavity wall
Right & Left Pleural MembranesSerous membranes that cover lungs (visceral pleural) & walls of pleural cavity (parietal pleura)
Pericardial membraneserous membrane that covers the heart (visceral pericardium) and pericardial pleural cavity (parietal pericardium)
Peritoneal membraneserous membrane that covers the abdominal organs (visceral peritoneum) and abdominal cavity walls (parietal peritoneum)
Oral cavitycontains tongue and teeth
Nasal cavitycavity that is the part of upper airways
Orbital cavitiescontain eyeballs and various nerves & blood vessels
Middle ear cavitycontain small bones of middle ear
Synovial cavityfound in freely moveable joints

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