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ANAPHY LEC PT2

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baejuhyeoned's version from 2018-09-09 11:09

Section

'= LESSON 3
Question Answer
CellsSmallest living unit; Most are microscopic
Robert Hooke (mid 1600s)Observed sliver of cork
Robert Hooke (mid 1600s)Saw "row of empty boxes”
Robert Hooke (mid 1600s)Coined the term cell
Theodor Schwann & Matthias Schleiden (1839)"all living things are made of cells"
Rudolf Virchow (1989)"all cells come from cells"
(1) All living things are made of cells, (2) Smallest living unit of structure and function of all organisms is the cell, (3) All cells arise from preexisting cells3 Principles of Cell Theory
(1) A surrounding membrane, (2) Has Protoplasm, (3) Has Organelles, (4) Control center with DNA4 Characteristics of All Cells
Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic2 types of cell
ProkaryoticFirst cell type on earth
ProkaryoticCell type of bacteria and Archaea
ProkaryoticCell that has no membrane bound nucleus
Nucleoidregion of DNA concentration
ProkaryoticCell that Organelles not bound by membranes
EukaryoticCell that is Nucleus bound by membrane
EukaryoticCell that Include fungi, protists, plant and animal cell
EukaryoticCell that Possess many organelles
OrganellesCellular machinery
(1) Derived from membranes, (2) Bacteria-like organellesTwo general kinds of Organelles
Plasma MembraneDouble layer of phospholipids & proteins that contains cell contents
Plasma MembraneA few molecules move freely
Plasma MembraneHas Water, Carbon dioxide, Ammonia, Oxygen
Plasma MembraneProtects cell organelles
Melatoninhormones produced during night
(1) Interconnected filaments fibers (2) Fluid = cytosol (3) Organelles (not nucleus) (4) store substances4 Components of Cytoplasm
Cytoskeletonfilaments & fibers
Cytoskeletonmade of three fiber types: Microfilaments, Microtubules & Intermediate filaments
CytoskeletonProvide mechanical support
CytoskeletonAnchor organelles
CytoskeletonHelp move substances
Cilia & FlagellaProvide motility
Cilia & FlagellaBasal bodies like centrioles
CiliaShort and used to move substances outside human cells
FlagellaWhip-like extensions found on sperm cells
CentriolesPairs of microtubular structures
CentriolesPlay a role in cell division
Nucleuscontrol center of cell because it contains chromosome; it also contains nucleolus; It is double membrane
Nuclear EnvelopeSeparates nucleus from rest of cell
Nuclear EnvelopeDouble membrane and has pores
Nuclear EnvelopeChooses some element to pass through
Nuclear EnvelopeProtects nucleus
DNAhereditary material
NucleolusDirects synthesis of RNA
NucleolusForms ribosomes
Endoplasmic ReticulumHelps move substances within cells
Endoplasmic ReticulumNetwork of interconnected membranes
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulumribosomes attached to surface; manufacture proteins; not all ribosomes are attached to this
Rough Endoplasmic ReticulumMay modify proteins from ribosomes
Smooth Endoplasmic ReticulumNo attached ribosomes
Smooth Endoplasmic ReticulumHas enzymes that help build molecules; carbohydrates; lipids
Golgi ApparatusInvolved in synthesis of plant cell wall
Golgi ApparatusPackaging & shipping station of cell
Lysosomescontain digestive enzymes
LysosomesAid in cell renewal
LysosomesBreak down old cell parts
LysosomesDigestive invaders
Vacuolesmembrane bound storage sacs
VacuolesIts contents: Water, food & wastes
VacuolesMore common in plants than animals
Mitochondriahave their own DNA
MitochondriaBound by double membrane
MitochondriaBreak down fuel molecules (cellular respiration): Glucose & Fatty acids
MitochondriaRelease energy: ATP
Passive & ActiveTypes of cellular transport
Passive Transportcell transport that has no energy required
Passive TransportMove due to gradient; differences in concentration, pressure, charge
Passive TransportMove to equalize gradient; high moves toward low
(1) Diffusion, (2) Osmosis, (3) Facilitated diffusion3 types of Passive transport
Diffusionthe movement of atoms or molecules from higher to lower are of concentration
Osmosispassage of molecules from low to high concentration through semi permeable membrane
OsmosisSpecial form of diffusion
OsmosisFluid flows from lower solute concentration
OsmosisOften involves movement of water: Into & out of cell
Isotonic, Hypotonic, Hypertonic3 types of solution
Hypotonicsolutes in cell more than outside
HypotonicOutside solvent will flow into cell
IsotonicSolute equals inside & out of cell
HypertonicSolutes greater outside cell
HypertonicFluid will flow out of cell
Facilitated diffusionpassage of a solvent from lower to higher concentration solution through semi permeable
Facilitated diffusionChannels help molecule or ions enter or leave the cell
(1) Protein binds with molecule, (2) Shape of protein changes, (3) Molecule moves across membrane3 Process of Facilitated transport
Active Transportcell transport that has molecular movement
Active Transport cell transport that requires energy against gradient
Active Transportcell transport: example is sodium-potassium pump
Endocytosismovement of large material such as particles, organism & large molecules
EndocytosisMovement is into cells
(1) Bulk-phase (nonspecific), (2) Receptor-mediated (specific)Types of endocytosis
(1) Plasma membrane surrounds material, (2) Edges of membrane meet, (3) Membranes fuse to form vesicle3Process of Endocytosis
Phagocytosiscell eating
Pinocytosiscell drinking
(1) Phagocytosis & (2) Pinocytosis2 Forms of Endocytosis
Exocytosisreverse of endocytosis
ExocytosisCell discharges material
ExocytosisVesicles moves to cell surface
ExocytosisMembrane of vesicles fuses
ExocytosisMaterials expelled
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