baejuhyeoned's version from 2018-11-22 22:14

Section 1

Question Answer
(1) Transports nutrients and oxygen to the body, (2) Transports waste products from the cells to kidneys for excretion, (3) Distributes hormones and antibodies throughout the body , (4) Helps control body temperature and maintain electrolyte balanceFUNCTIONS OF CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
HeartTwo-sided, double pump
HeartWeigh less than a pound
HeartSlightly bigger than a fist
HeartLocated between the lungs in thoracic cavity
HeartPositioned partially to the left of sternum
Mediastinumexact location of heart
HeartOnly muscle that can stimulate its own contractions
Left and right atrium & Left and right ventricle4 CHAMBERS OF THE HEART
Atriatop two chambers
AtriaBlood enters here
Ventriclelower two chambers
VentricleBlood leaves heart through this
Septumdivides the right and left sides of the heart
Pulmonary circulationright side of heart pumps deoxygenated blood to lungs
Systemic circulationleft side of heart pumps oxygenated blood to rest of the body
Hepatic circulationpath of blood from intestines, gallbladder, pancreas, stomach, and spleen through lived
4 valves of heartPrevent blood from flowing back into heart
AtrioventricularSeparate atria & ventricles
Semilunar valvesSeparate ventricles from pulmonary artery & aorta
1) Endocardium, (2) Myocardium, (3) PericardiumTISSUE LAYERS OF HEART
Endocardiumsmooth layer of cells lining the inside of heart & forming valves
Myocardiumthickest layer, consisting of muscle tissue
Pericardiumdouble membrane that covers the outside of the heart
PericardiumProvide lubrication between the heart and surrounding structures to prevent tissue damage
Sinoatrial cells (SA Node) in right atriumStart the heart
Atrioventricular node (AV node)Send impulse into lower portions of heart
AV bundle or bundle of HISStimulate Purkinje fibers
Purkinje fibersCause ventricles to contract


Question Answer
(1) Veins, (2) Venules, (3) Capillaries, (4) Arteries4 BLOOD VESSELS
Veinscarry blood away from heart
VeinsBlood is oxygenated
VeinsHave muscular layer of tissue that helps pump blood out of body
Aortais the largest artery in the body, which branches into smaller arteries
Venulessmaller vessels
VenulesBlood moves from arterioles to capillaries
Capillariesmicroscopic vessels that carry blood between the arterial and venous vessels
CapillariesGases, nutrients, and waste exchanged: blood gives up oxygen
CapillariesBlood flows from capillaries into venules
ArteriesVenules branch together to form veins
ArteriesCarry blood back to heart by gravity
Pulmonary veinBlood is deoxygenated except ___________
ArteriesContains valves that prevent blood from flowing back
ArteriesHave much thinner muscular layer
Superior vena cava & Inferior vena cavalargest veins


Question Answer
(1) Pulse & (2) Blood pressureASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES
Pulsesurge of blood against the walls of the arteries
60-90 bpmNormal pulse rate is __________
EightThere are are how many pulse points in body
Blood Pressureforce of blood against the walls of the arteries
120/80Normal bpm is
Systolic & Diastolic2 types of pressure
Systolic pressureventricles of the heart contract
Diastolic pressureventricles relax
(1) Temporal, (2) Carotid, (3) Brachial, (4) Radial, (5) Apical, (6) Femoral, (7) Popliteal, (8) Dorsalis Peris pulse, (9) Posterior tibialis pulsePERIPHERAL PULSE POINTS
Radial pulse most accessible pulse but not for infants & elderly
Apical pulsemost accurate pulse
Apical pulsePulse pont used for infants & elderly
5th intercostal space left mid clavicular lineLocation of apical pulse

Section 2

Question Answer
Bloodessential supportive fluid
BloodTransported in closed system throughout body through blood vessels
BloodPhysical characteristics of blood
(1) Transportation, (2) Protection, (3) RegulationFUNCTIONS OF BLOOD
Erythrocytes (RBCs)produced in red bone marrow
Leukocytes (WBCs)formed in bone marrow & lymph tissue
Thrombocytes (Platelets)fragments of cells because they lack nuclei & vary in shape
Plasmaliquid portion
Plasma90-92% water with fibrous protein
PlasmaSuspends blood cells & transports blood cells
PlasmaCarries metabolic wastes & nutrients
PlasmaCirculates hormones
PlasmaMaintains water content & body temperature
PlasmaMaintains acid-base balance of blood
(1) Neutrophilis, (2) Monocytes, (3) Eosinophil, (4)BasophilsTYPES OF WBCs
NeutrophilisPhagocytize bacteria by secreting enzyme called lysozyme
MonocytesPhagocytize bacteria & foreign materials
EosinophilRemove toxins and defend the body from allergic reactions by producing antihistamines
BasophilsParticipate in the body’s inflammatory response
BasophilsProduce histamine, heparin


Question Answer
Group O45%
Group ONo A or B antigens present
Group OForm potent anti-A & anti-B antibodies
Group A40%
Group ANo B antigens present
Group AForm potent anti-B antibodies
Group B11%
Group BNo A antigens present
Group BForm potent anti-A antibodies
Group AB4%
Group ABPossess no ABO antibodies
HemolysisIf an individual with an incompatible blood group destruction of the red blood cells will occur
HemolysisMay result in death of recipient


Question Answer
AneurismArea of blood vessel that bulges because of weakness in wall
AtherosclerosisNarrowing of blood vessels caused by deposits of fatty material containing calcium & cholesterol
Cardiac arrhythmiaDisturbance of heart’s rhythm caused by a defect in the heart’s pacemaker cell or by damage to heart tissue
Cardiovascular diseaseGeneral term for combined effects of arteriosclerosis & related diseases called coronary artery disease
Congenital heart diseaseGroup of disorders that affect about 25,000 newborns each year in US
Congestive heart failureInability of heart to pump blood adequately to meet body’s needs
Hypertensionhigh blood pressure
Myocardial infarction“heart attack”
Phlebitisinflammation of vein, often with formation of clot
Rheumatic heart diseaseWhen heart muscle & valves are damaged by recurrent bacterial infection that begins in throat
Varicose veinsIn which veins become large & ineffective