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Anaerobic energy

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winniesmith1's version from 2018-06-11 11:03

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Question Answer
how many Kcal is released per mole of ATP7.3 kcal
which enzyme is responsible for the energy required for muscle contractionmyofibrillar ATPase
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Question Answer
what is the action of ATPase on ATPits activity on myosin is the hydrolysis of ATP into ADP and Pi remain bound to myosin
when is ATP generated independent of oxygen availabilityduring substrate-level phosphorylation
how long can ATP be used for maximum contractionsATP storage in the cell is very limited (~2s worth of maximum contraction)- maximum sprint
what happens to your body when you diemuscles are completely contracted, mainly strongest muscles like our legs. The body is rigid and stiff because there is NOT ATP anymore so myosin heads and actin filaments are stuck joined together and need ATP to loosen the myosin head from the actin filament. RIG MORTIS
what are the three main ATP synthesis pathwaysATP-PCr system (anaerobic metabolism- energy from PCr breakdown can be used to generate ATP. this prolongs the time we can do exercise for). // Glycolytic system (anaerobic metabolism- blood lactate concentration) // Oxidative system (aerobic metabolism- oxygen uptake)
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Question Answer
Describe and explain how ATP is formed through the ATP-PCr system **1 molecule of ATP is produced per mole of PCr substrate. This metabolism allows the recycling of ATP during exercise until used up and lasts for ~3-15 seconds maximal exercise.
will ATPase accept PCr for energy production?NO, you cannot pay ATPase with PCr, you have to pay with ATP. Energy from PCr used to assemble ATP and ATP then used for muscle contraction
Describe the involvement of PCr in the reassemble process of ATPPCr energy can be used to REassemble ATP. This pathway involves the donation of a Pi (inorganic phosphate) molecule from PCr to ADP to form ATP. PCr pathway regenerates ATP to maintain a relatively constant supply under resting conditions
which enzyme is involved in the PCr pathwaythe release of energy from PCr is catalysed by the enzyme creatine kinase, this enzyme acts on PCr to separate Pi molecule
what is the role of negative feedback in this pathway?principles of negative feedback ad rate-limiting enzymes- creating kinase activity is enhanced when concentrations of ADP or Pi increase, and is inhibited when ATP concentrations increase
what occurs at the start of intense exercise?when intense exercise starts, the small amount of available ATP in muscle cells is broken down for immediate energy, yielding ADP and Pi.The increase in ADP concentration enhances creating kinase activity and PCr is catabolized to form additional ATP. // During first few seconds of sprinting ATP is maintained at a constant level but PCr declines steadily as it is used to replenish the depleted ATP.
what happens as exercise progresses?as exercise progresses and additional ATP is generated by the other two systems, creating kinase activity is inhibited
what occurs at exhaustion?both ATP and PCr levels are low and unable to provide energy for further muscle contraction and relaxation. This means capacity to maintain ATP levels is limited. he combination of ATP and PCr stores can sustain the muscle's energy needs for only ~3-15 seconds during an all-out sprint.
what does a creatine content VS exercise intensity graph tell you?muscle lactate would be low if resting an creating (PCr muscle conce) would be at maximum. If 100% VO2 max or maximum sprint, the further you go the more dependent you are on PCr pathway which means PCr is broken down and reaches near zero levels, whereas lactate would reach max levels. The body tries to maintain homeostasis. But if we go all out in exercise then this can have an effect on ATP levels and shows in curve ATP declines a bit
can ATP levels of zero occur in living things?no, this only occurs in dead things
what is the creatine (Cr) supplementation equation?PCr + ADP + H+ --> Cr + ATP
is it possible to delay ADP increases?yes, this also results in cross-bridge cycling slowing improved
describe the osmotic activity of creatinehigh cell water content means weight gain. increase osmotic pressure in cells if too much PCr. This would attract water from surrounding areas and cells would swell and look bigger (not stronger but bigger)
Describe the myokinase reactionADP + ADP --> ATP + AMP
what is the cost of the myokinase reaction31 KJ/mol ADP
when is the myokinase reaction importantonly during high intensity exercise (activated when PH falls). This reactions has a limited capacity to produce ATP.
what is the role of AMP in the myokinase reaction?AMP is an activator of enzymes involved in glycogen breakdown. If breakdown occurs then more energy is available. the products of the myokinase reaction can activate or deactivate enzymes
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Question Answer
describe the production of ATP through the anaerobic glycolytic systembreakdown of glucose/glycogen via glycolysis. ATP yield: from glucose to pyruvate, this process leads to 2 net ATP gain and can be used for muscular contraction. If starts from glycogen, then you invest ONE less ATP and still get 4 ATPs so net amount of ATP is 3. We have this form of energy for a while, duration is 15 seconds to 2 min. It widens and prolongs period for which we can re-generate ATP.
what are the key enzymes in glycolysis and the krebs cycle?phosphofructokinase. this enzyme is rate limiting. if the concentration of enzyme is decreased, then the reaction will go faster. // if the concentration of enzyme is increased, then reaction will go slower. the reaction being slow means it widens and prolongs time for which we can re-generate ATP. This glycolytic system is also regulated by products of krebs cycle. If krebs cycle runs a lot more products, then more indicative of cellular work so good idea to switch enzymes that can provide energy
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Question Answer
what does lower ATP and higher AMP show?Lower ATP and higher AMP is a reflection of muscular work
can a sprinter and endurance runner have the same power output?yes, they can. however, sprinter may have higher peak power but may not be able to go for as long. this is explained by various factors including at anaerobic enzymes amount which are highly present in a sprinter (remember power means the rate at which ATP can be produced. capacity: how much ATP can be produced? )
what does a wingate test show?in the first 10 seconds is the phosphocreating breakdown and middle of test is the glycolysis pathways. TOWARDS THE END: aerobic pathway type I muscle fibres providing some energy
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