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Amino Acid Metabolism

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wemugohe's version from 2018-03-17 18:39

Section 1

Question Answer
transaminaseAA + alpha-ketoacid <==> alpha-ketoacid + AA
glutamate dehydrogenaseglutamate ==> alpha-ketoglutarate + NH4+
homocysteinuriadeficient cystathione beta-synthase ==> increased homocysteine and methionine ==> lens dislocation, mental retardation, skeletal abnormalities, neurologic abnormalities
maple syrup urine diseasedeficient branched chain AA dehydrogenases ==> accumulation of Val, Ile, Leu ==> urine smells like maple syrup, mental retardation, poor nerve myelination
phenylketonuriadeficient phenylalanine hydroxylase ==> phenylalanine accumulation ==> musty odor urine, mental retardation
alkoptanuriadeficient homogentisate oxidase ==> homogentisic acid accumulation ==> dark colored pigments in urine, fibrous tissue, eventual arthritis
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Section 2

Question Answer
Serine synthesisfrom 3-phosphoglycerate
Glycine synthesisfrom serine
Cysteine synthesisfrom serine, methionine
Alanine synthesisfrom pyruvate
Aspartate synthesisfrom OAA
Asparagine synthesisfrom Aspartate
Glutaratefrom alpha-ketoglutarate
Glutaminefrom glutamate
Prolinefrom glutamate
Argininefrom glutamate
Tyrosinefrom Phenylalanine
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Section 3

Question Answer
Histidine metabolismalpha-ketoglutarate (glucogenic)
Arginine metabolismalpha-ketoglutarate (glucogenic)
Proline metabolismalpha-ketoglutarate (glucogenic)
Glutamine metabolismalpha-ketoglutarate (glucogenic)
Glutamate metabolismalpha-ketoglutarate (glucogenic)
Alanine metabolismpyruvate (glucogenic)
Cysteine metabolismpyruvate (glucogenic)
Glycine metabolismpyruvate (glucogenic)
Serine metabolismpyruvate (glucogenic)
Threonine metabolismsuccinyl CoA via propionyl CoA (glucogenic); Acetyl CoA (ketogenic)
Isoleucine metabolismsuccinyl CoA via propionyl CoA (glucogenic); Acetyl CoA (ketogenic)
Methionine metabolismsuccinyl CoA via propionyl CoA (glucogenic)
Valine metabolismsuccinyl CoA via propionyl CoA (glucogenic)
Tyrosine metabolismfumarate (glucogenic); Acetoacetate (ketogenic)
Phenylalanine metabolismfumarate (glucogenic); Acetoacetate (ketogenic)
Aspartate metabolismfumarate (glucogenic); OAA (glucogenic)
Asparagine metabolismOAA (glucogenic)
Lysine metabolismAcetyl CoA (ketogenic)
Tryptophan metabolismAcetyl CoA (ketogenic)
Leucine metabolismAcetyl CoA, Acetoacetate (ketogenic)
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Section 4

Question Answer
Creatine derived fromGlycine + Arginine + SAM
Glutathione derived fromGlutamine + Cysteine + Glycine
Nitric Oxide derived fromL-arginine ==> citrulline byproduct
GABAGlutamate decarboxylation
HistamineHistidine decarboxylation
Ceramide/ SphingolipidsSerine + palmitoyl CoA ==> decarboxylation
SerotoninTryptophan decarboxylation
DopamineTyrosine decarboxylation
NE, EpinephrineTyrosine
MelaninsTyrosine
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