American West - The Plains Indians

megrusson's version from 2015-05-27 14:42

Section 1

Question Answer
What was the name of the Indian God?Waken Tanka
What did the Indians believe about spirits?That all natural things had a spirit - even rocks and streams, and everything should be treated with respect.
Which animal was mainly responsible for Indian survival?Buffalo
Why did Indians fight?To steal horses or kill men for revenge/honour - not to conquer other tribes or gain land.
Name three different Indian tribes.Sioux / Cheyennes / Mandans

Section 2

Question Answer
Which shape had significance to the Indians?Circles
Why did circles have such significance?As the Indians saw it, the power of the earth always moved and worked in circles.
What land was highly sacred to the Sioux tribe?Black Hills of Dakota
What did Indians believe about the sale of land?Land could not be owned, bought or sold
Why were Indians against mining or farming?They saw the Earth as their Mother, and farming/mining was cutting into their Mother.
How did Indians contact the spirit world?Through visions
When were Indian boys & girls given their adult name?In a ceremony when they saw their first vision
Who would interpret visions?Medicine men
How could whole tribes contact the spirit world together?Through elaborate and sometimes agonising dances, like the Buffalo Dance.
Why did Indians believe that illness and accidents happened?They were possessed by evil spirits.

Section 3

Question Answer
What is the name given to people who constantly move to live?Nomadic
The introduction of which animal in the 17th century made hunting buffalo easier for the Indians?Horses
Who butchered the buffalo when they were returned after a hunt?Women & children
What could be kept to feed the tribe during cold winter months?Jerky (left over meat smoked or dried in the sun)
Give some buffalo body parts and the use for each.Tanned hide - robes, tipi covers / Dung - fuel / Tongue - hairbrush / Bones - knives / Fur - blankets / Hair - string
Which one buffalo part was not kept and why?The heart, which was cut from the animal and left on the Plains in the hope it would bring new life to the herd.

Section 4

Question Answer
Which Indians rose up against the Spanish?The Pueblo Indians
In which year did the Indians drive the Spanish out and capture their horses?1640
What did horses mainly enable Indians to do?Survive in the depths of the Great Plains
What displayed the importance of horses to the Indians by the 19th century?Indians measured the wealth, status and prestige of their tribe by the number of horses in possession.

Section 5

Question Answer
What did the Indians live in?Tipis
What were tipis made from?A framework of wooden poles with buffalo skins sewn and stretched over them.
Why was the tipi so effective?Tipi flaps at top directed smoke away / In summer skins could be rolled up to increase airflow / In winter earth was banked up around the tipi to keep warm / The conical design resisted strong winds
Who looked after the tipis?The women
What carried a family's belongings over the Plains?A 'travois'
What were young Indian boys taught?Horsemanship and fighting
What were young Indian girls taught?How to provide food & clothing and how to look after the tipi.
How important was family to the Indians?Family was vitally important, and looking after one another ensured safety and survival of the band and new generations.
What would happen to wives if their husbands were killed?They were shared out and married to surviving men.
What marriage technique did the Indians practice?Polygamy
Who could often be left behind when the Indians moved and why?The elderly, as they were now unfit to travel.
What was a tribe separated into?Bands
When did an entire tribe meet?Usually in the summer for a great tribal camp.
What was the role of the warrior society?Protect women and children from attack, supervise hunting and ensure not too many buffalo were killed.
What was counting coup?Simply touching an enemy, without killing them.
What was scalping?Removing the scalp of your dead enemy, and therefore removing their spirit - they could not live beyond death.