American West - Early Migrants and Settlers

megrusson's version from 2015-06-07 11:01

Section 1

Question Answer
In what year did banks collapse in the East, rendering thousands bankrupt?1837
What happened in Philadelphia in 1839?20,000 unemployed people protested
In what year was gold first discovered in California?1848
Why did Mississippi farmers face ruin in 1837?Wheat prices fell dramatically
How did mountain men and trappers contribute to 'pull factors'?They told stories of fertile land and huge amounts of furs and fish
What did an act of 1842 ensure?That land in Oregon was available cheaply
What was a pull factor for missionaries?They wanted to convert Indians to Christianity (or Mormonism)
By how much were wages cut in the East in 1837?40%
In what year was gold discovered in the Rocky Mountains?1858
By how much did the population of Missouri grow between 1830 and 1840?By over 300,000

Section 2

Question Answer
What was the US government's solution to hold onto their new lands?To populate it entirely
What was 'Manifest Destiny'?The 'God-given right' of white Americans to populate the entire United States.
Who first coined this phrase?John O'Sullivan, editor of the New York newspaper 'The Morning Post'

Section 3

Question Answer
In what year did the first wagons arrive in Oregon?1843
What were the two most popular trails?The California Trail and the Oregon Trail
What would migrants face on the Great Plains?Sandstorms, quicksands, rain, hunger, stampeding buffalo, hostile Indians, extreme heat, thunderstorms
How many people die on the trails West between 1840-1860?34,000
What was the town called where the first migrants gathered before beginning their journey?Independence
What did wagon trains usually ensure before leaving?That they had a variety of migrants with a range of skills to get them through the journey.
Which disease spread very easily within wagon trains?Cholera
Why did the Donner party face problems?They split up, some of whom using an advertised 'short-cut' which had not been tested and was very dangerous
What trapped the Donner party in the Sierra Nevada?Deep snows, bringing icy blizzards
What was the result of the harsh winter for the Donner party?Animals dying and food stocks dwindling where no-one had the skill to hunt in the harsh conditions.
How did the remaining members of the Donner party survive?By eating their dead friends and relatives.

Section 4

Question Answer
What discovery of gold began the mining settlement?California, 1848
By the end of 1849, how many men were digging for gold in California?90,000
Was there any success in the mining industry?Some did strike gold and became very rich indeed, and these stories kept other miners going.
What other gold discoveries were there?Rocky Mountains (1858-1859), Idaho (1860), Montana (1862), Arizona (1863), Black Hills of Dakota (1874)
Where did the early miners live?In temporary shanty towns, little more than groups of filthy shacks beside a dust road
What diseases were common in early mining towns?Dysentery, scurvy and typhoid
Where would these early miners often go when not working?Saloons
What was the difference between early miners and professional miners?Professional miners settled with their families in permanent mining towns, and had the machinery to find gold in deep mines and turn it into a profitable industry.
Who were early mining towns run by?The most violent men with the most effective guns
What was the most common crime in early mining towns?Claim-jumping - stealing someone else's claim to gold.
What did the miners do to tackle law and order?Set up their own courts, which were often corrupt
When did the management of law and order become more formalised?When professional miners settled in permanent towns with their families
What did this formalisation entail?Claims to mines had to be recorded / Sheriffs were appointed to arrest criminals / A court of miners decided on guilt or innocence
Why was this new system still not ideal?Trials were quick and justice was rarely fair - punishments included flogging, banishment or hanging.
What were vigilantes?Groups who took the law into their own hands
What punishment did vigilantes frequently exercise?Lynching
Why did vigilante groups often appear?The courts could not cope with the level of lawlessness
What were the positive impacts of the discovery of gold?Stimulated rapid growth of San Francisco / Ensured that a railroad was built to California / Wealth created gave the US a leading role in world trade / Stimulated more movement West
What were the negative impacts of the discovery of gold?Racial conflicts were common, often between American and Chinese / Taxes were imposed on foreign miners, leading to further tension / Californian Indians were virtually wiped out

Section 5

Question Answer
In what year did Joseph Smith dig up the golden plates?1823
What quality did Joseph have that led to several hundred people becoming Mormons by 1830?Charismatic public speaking
What did Mormons practice that made them unpopular?Polygamy
What made Mormons leave New York state?Preachers believed they were blasphemous, Joseph Smith was accused of being a fraudster, mobs attacked his house and Mormons were shot in the street.
Where did the Mormons move to in 1831?Ohio
Why were Mormons driven out of Ohio?People became jealous of their success / they were afraid they would become outnumbered / people lost their savings set up in the Mormon bank
Where did Mormons settle after Ohio?Missouri
Why were Mormons driven out of Missouri?People didn't trust their friendly attitude toward slaves and Plains Indians / the Mormon police force, the Danites, was frightening / Mormons were attacked and their houses burnt down
Where did Mormons settle after Missouri?Illinois
Why were Mormons driven out of Illinois?People were again afraid they would be outnumbered / the practice of polygamy disgusted people / Smith was imprisoned and killed by an angry mob / Governor of Illinois forced Mormons to leave
Who became the Mormons' second leader?Brigham Young
What did Brigham Young do to make the journey to Salt Lake City successful?Organised Mormons into manageable groups, each with a leader / Gave every member a role to play / Taught people how to arrange wagons at night to ensure safety / Insisted on regular resting places
What were the first reactions to the Great Salt Lake?It was barren, desolate and infertile
In what year did the Mormons first arrive at the Great Salt Lake?1847
Why was Brigham Young so successful in establishing Salt Lake City?He had total control over the Mormons as everyone believed God inspired his decisions, so followed him.
How did Young allocate land in Salt Lake City?He worked from the centre outwards. There were five acre plots near the centre for artisans and mechanics, ten acre plots for small families and elderly couples, and on the outside, plots up to 80 acres for the biggest families.
How did Young solve the problem of salty water?The streams supplying the lake were not salty, and so an irrigation ditch was dug for a water supply.
How did Young help Mormons to spread throughout Utah?When suitable land was found, a town would be marked out in the same way Salt Lake City had been. There was always a balance of skills, ages and occupations.
How was the Mormon boundary kept secure?Towns like Las Vegas were built up in order to protect the city.
What did Young set up to encourage emigration to Salt Lake City?Perpetual Emigration Fund
What did the PEF do?Provided money for poor Mormons living elsewhere in the world to make the journey to Salt Lake City
How many English Mormon converts emigrated in 1851?Over 30,000
How was the PEF repaid?Mormon settlers had to repay this money once they had become prosperous in Utah
Why was there tension in Salt Lake City in the 1850s-1880s?The government would not let the Mormons govern themselves, and a massacre of non-Mormon migrants aroused suspicion and fear of the Danites
What was the condition if the US government allowed Mormons to live without interference?That they banned polygamy and allowed a non-Mormon governor. This happened in 1890 and Utah became a state.