Alpine Geography

wepifida's version from 2016-03-16 10:25

Section 1

Question Answer
Endogenic processesinternal earth processes that create landforms
Exogenic processeslandform making processes that are active on the earths surface, i.e. wind water waves and ice
Regolithlayer of mineral particles that lies above bedrock
Physical weatheringprocesses such as water and temperature which work to break down rocks i.e. water expanding when it freezes and fracturing rocks
Chemical weatheringdisintegration of rocks through chemical reactions such as water dissolving properties, produces rounded clay sized material
Unloadingrock is exposed which releases pressure causing it to expand slightly
what are Sheeting structuresrock joints in layers parallel to surface
What to sheeting structures form?exfoliation domes
Protalus rampartridge or ramp of debris that develops along the lower margin of a perennial snow patch
Secondary mineralsminerals that weather out of primary minerals
Isomorphic substitutionrearranges ions - chemical weathering
Nivationcombination of weathering and erosion which forms nivation hollows
Biochemical weatheringLichen (mix of fungi and algae) decomposes rock

Section 2

Question Answer
Permafrostpermanently frozen ground
Arctic PermafrostCan be continuous or discontinuous
Alpine Permafrostfound in high elevations can be continuous or discontinuous
Active Layer (permafrost)Shallow surface layer subject to seasonal
Talik (permafrost)unfrozen lens within PF - often found beneath lakes
Depth of PF controlled by geothermal heat flux & annual temp
Frost heaveDisplacement of soil and rock with the growth of segregated ground ice
What are the 3 types of frost heavefrost pull, frost push, needle ice
Ice segregationwhen moisture in the soil is liquid and the air temp is below freezing cool water moves to the presence of ice and adds to the ice through freezing
Frost pullthe soil mantle expands as the freezing plane descends from the surface, retracts when thawed leaving rocks slightly elevated
Frost pushice forms beneath rocks due to more rapid heat loss pushing them towards the surface
Frost HeaveNeedle ice - forms on cold calm nights in most soil and through disturbance makes them more susceptible to erosion
Patterned groundrocks get sorted in heave process, geometric pattern resulting from heave
Gelifluction (solifluction)lobes occur on slopes where surface is moving more quickly than soil at depth creating a stepped slope

Section 3

Question Answer
Earthquake hazards in MountainsGround shaking, surface faulting, liquefaction, mass wasting
Mass wastinglandslides
GLOFGlacial lake outburst flood
SoilInterface between rock, air, water, and living things made up of mineral and organic constituents
4 soil componentsair, minerals, water, and life (all in variable amounts)
Soil - mineral component~45%, building block of soil
Soil - Organic component~5%
Soil - air/waterhalf the volume of soil, fills pore spaces, related to each other as water replaces air
Old soils tend to..thicker, redder, higher clay content, lower ph, fewer nutrients
Entisolsform in areas with high erosion composed of sand gravel and cobbles, common in rockies
Inceptisolssoils with a weak b horizon, younger soil, found in mnts but not often in rockies
Gelisolssoils in cold regions, slow decomp
Andisolsformed in volcanic ask cinders, light and fluffy, found in Andes

Section 4