alexamartin's version from 2017-10-23 13:47

Section 1

Question Answer
The action of aldosterone is to ________. A) promote an increase in blood pressure B) decrease sodium reabsorption (retention) C)result in a larger output of urine D) promote a decrease in blood volume A
Hypotension is generally considered as having diastolic blood pressure that is below 90 mm Hg. True OR False FALSE
Which statement best describes arteries? A) All carry oxygenated blood to the heart. B) Only large arteries are lined with endothelium. C) All carry blood away from the heart. D) All contain valves to prevent the backflow of blood. C
Which of the following is the most significant source of blood flow resistance? (hint: it's the one that can be changed the quickest) A) blood viscosity B) total blood vessel length C) blood vessel diameter D) blood vessels type C
Which of the choices below is the closest to the lumen of a blood vessel? A) endothelium B) collagen fibers C) tunica media D) smooth muscle A
Vasodilation is a widening of the lumen due to smooth muscle contraction. TRUE OR FALSE FALSE
The velocity of blood flow is ________. A) slowest in the capillaries because the total cross-sectional area is the greatest B) slower in the arteries than in capillaries because arteries possess a relatively large diameter C) increases when the total cross-sectional area of the blood vessels increases D) slower in the veins than in the capillaries because veins have a large diameter A
Select the correct statement about factors that influence blood pressure. A) Excess red cell production would cause a blood pressure increase. B) An increase in cardiac output corresponds to a decrease in blood pressure, due to the increased delivery. C) Systemic vasodilation would increase blood pressure, due to diversion of blood to essential areas. D) Excess protein production would decrease blood pressure. A
Which of the following types of vessels allows the exchange of nutrients and gases between the blood and tissue cells? A) arteries B) arterioles C) capillaries D) veins C

Section 2

Question Answer
The thymus is most active during ________. A) old age B) fetal development C) middle age D) childhood D
Which of the following is not a function of the lymphatic system? A) carrying out immune responses B) transporting respiratory gases C) draining excess interstitial fluid D) transporting dietary fats B
Which of the following is not a normal component of lymph? A) water B) red blood cells C) ions D) plasma proteins B
Like blood, lymph flows both to and from the heart. True OR False FALSE
Functions of the spleen include all of those below except ________. A) storage of blood platelets B) removal of old or defective blood cells from the blood C) forming crypts that trap bacteria D) storage of iron C
Select the correct statement about lymph transport. A) Lymph transport is only necessary when illness causes tissue swelling. B) Lymph transport depends on the movement of adjacent tissues, such as skeletal muscles. C) Under normal conditions, lymph vessels are very high-pressure conduits. D) Lymph transport is faster than that occurring in veins. B
Select the correct statement about lymphocytes. A) B cells produce plasma cells, which secrete antibodies into the blood. B) T cells are the only form of lymphocyte found in lymphoid tissue. C) T cells are the precursors of B cells. D) The two main types are T cells and macrophages. A
The lymphatic capillaries are ________. A) as permeable as blood capillaries B) less permeable than blood capillaries C) more permeable than blood capillaries D) completely impermeable C

Section 3

Question Answer
Complement proteins and antibodies coat a microorganism and provide binding sites, enabling macrophages and neutrophils to phagocytize the organism. This phenomenon is termed ________. A) agglutination B) chemotaxis C) diapedesis D) opsonization D
Which of the following statements is incorrect? A) MHC proteins are the cell's identity markers. B) Haptens lack immunogenicity unless attached to protein carriers. C) Class II MHC molecules are built into the plasma membranes of all body cells. D) Class I MHC molecules are built into the plasma membranes of all body cells. C
Fever ________. A) causes the liver to release large amounts of iron, which seems to inhibit bacterial replication B) is a higher-than-normal body temperature that is always dangerous C) decreases the metabolic rate of the body to conserve energy D) production is regulated by chemicals that reset the body's thermostat to a higher settingD
B cells respond to the initial antigen challenge by ________. A) producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells B) forming of a large number of cells that are unlike the original B cell C) reducing its size D) immediately producing antigen-specific antibodies A
The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to a local hyperemia caused by ________. A) complement production B) vasoconstriction C) vasodilation D) phagocyte mobilization C
Which of the following statements is false? A) T cells and B cells become activated when they bind with recognized antigens. B) After becoming immunocompetent, the naive T cells and B cells are exported to the bone marrow where the encounters with antigens occur. C) It is our genes, not antigens, that determine what specific foreign substances our immune system will be able to recognize and resist. D) The lymphoid organs where lymphocytes become immunocompetent are called primary lymph organs. All other lymphoid organs are referred to as secondary lymphoid organs.B

Section 4

Question Answer
Most inhaled particles such as dust do not reach the lungs because of the ________. A) ciliated mucus lining in the nose B) action of the epiglottis C) porous structure of turbinate bones D) abundant blood supply to nasal mucosa A
Which of the following provide the greatest surface area for gas exchange? A) respiratory bronchioles B) alveoli C) terminal bronchioles D) alveolar ducts B
O2 and CO2 are exchanged in the lungs (and through all cell membranes) by the process of ________. A) osmosis B) filtration C) diffusion D) active transport C
How does surfactant prevent the alveoli from collapsing? A) By interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid B) By protecting the surface of alveoli from dehydration and other environmental variations C) By increasing the cohesive force between water molecules, thereby increasing surface tension D) By warming and humidifying the air before it enters A
The erythrocyte count increases after a while when an individual goes from a low to a high altitude because the ________. A) basal metabolic rate is higher at high altitudes B) temperature is lower at higher altitudes C) concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is higher at higher altitudes D) concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes D
________ is the most powerful respiratory stimulus for breathing in a healthy person. A) Alkalosis B) The increase of carbon dioxide C) The loss of oxygen in tissues D) Acidosis B
Which of the following choices best describes the forces that act to pull the lungs away from the thorax wall? (A force that acts to collapse the lungs) A) the natural tendency for the lungs to recoil and the surface tension of the alveolar fluid B) lung compliance and surfactant C) compliance and transpulmonary pressures D) intrapulmonary pressure A

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