All about Bacteria

darodri6's version from 2016-02-20 03:09


BacteriumDistinguishing CharacteristicsDiseases
ActinomycesAnaerobe, branching rod,‘‘Sulfur’’ granule (microcolonies), Contiguous growth through anatomic barriers, Cervicofacial, thoracic, and abdominal lesionsActinomycosis
Bacillus anthracisPotent tripartite exotoxin: protective antigen, lethal factor and edema factorCutaneous anthrax
Bacillus anthracisPolypeptide capsule inhibits phagocytosis, Spore transmissionPulmonary anthrax
Bacteroides fragilisNon–spore-forming pleomorphic anaerobe, Mixed infections, Capsule, Possesses a beta-lactamase, Wound debridement importantIntra-abdominal abscess, Gastrointestinal, Cellulitis
Bordetella pertussisParoxysmal cough due to toxin, Attaches via pili; extracellular, Included in DTaP vaccineWhopping cough
Campylobacter jejuniComma-shaped rod; animal hosts, A frequent cause of diarrhea, Invasive, Neutrophils and blood in stoolInflammatory diarrhea
Clostridium botulinumSpore-forming anaerobe, Exotoxin acting at myoneural junction, Suppresses acetylcholine release by peripheral nerves, Produces flaccid muscle paralysis, Caused by ingestion of preformed toxin or by ingestion of spores by infantsBotulism
Clostridium difficileSpore-forming anaerobe, Part of normal gastrointestinal flora, Activated by antibiotic disruption of other flora, Secrete an enterotoxin and cytotoxinGastroenteritis, Pseudomembrane colitis
Clostridium perfringensSpore-forming anaerobe, Spores introduced by severe trauma, Possesses an alpha-toxin (lecithinase)Gas gangrene, Soft tissue cellulitis, food poisoning
Corynebacterium diphtheriaePhage-coded A/B exotoxin, Lysogenic conversion, Fragment A inhibits EF-2Pharyngeal diptheria, Cutaneous diptheria
Coxiella burnetiiIntracellular bacterium, Dust/parturition materials transmitted, Absence of rashQ fever, Pneumonitis with or without hepatitis
EnterococcusMost are alpha- or gamma-hemolytic, Antibiotic resistance is a problem, Beta-lactamase, Nosocomial opportunistUrinary tract infection (UTI), Endocarditis following genitourinary (GU) manipulations
Escherichia coliall strains possess endotoxinUTIs, neonatal meningitis, Sepsis
E. coli (EHEC)Enterohemorrhagic: Shiga-like verotoxinfibloody diarrhea (serotype 0157), Enteroinvasive: similar to ShigellaBloody diarrhea without without invasion; HUS, Inflammatory diarrhea
E. coli (ETEC)Enterotoxigenic: heat-labile toxin stimulates adenylate cyclase similar to cholera toxin; heat-stable toxin activates guanylate cyclase, Enteropathogenic: adherence to enterocytes --> infantile diarrheaGastroenteritis
Haemophilus influenzaeAntiphagocytic polysaccharide capsule, Pyrogenic, IgAase, Grow on chocolate agar or with X and V factors, Epiglottis requires a tracheotomyMeningitis (3 month to 6 year old-unvaccinated), Chronic bronchitis (COPD), Epiglottitis (unvaccinated)
Helicobacter pyloriSpiral rod, polar, flagella tuft, Produces a potent urease and vacuolating cytotoxin, Treat with omeprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin: Gastric and peptic ulcers, Increases risk for gastric adenocarcinoma
Legionella pneumophilaAquaphile-inhalation transmission, Association with amoeba in streams, Possesses a cytotoxin and endotoxin, Beta-lactamase, Stains with Dieterle silver stain; not standard Gram stain, Requires cysteine and iron for growth Intracellular parasiteLegionaires' disease (pneumonia)
Listeria monocytogenesAnimal reservoirs; cold growth, Infects monocytes (monocytosis), Hemolysin destroys vesicular membranesGastroenteritis; septicemia, Granulomas, abscesses, Meningitis (newborns; transplant patients)
Mycobacterium tuberculosisCell wall: peptidoglycan-arabinogalactan, mycolic acids, etc., make all mycobacteria acid fast and resistant to drying, Cord factor (trehalose dimycolate) induces granuloma, formation, Purified protein derivative in skin test, Multiple drug resistance, Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccineTB, Granulomas
Mycoplasma pneumoniaeLacks a cell wall, Smallest extracellular bacterium; not an L-form, Mucosal tissue tropism, Requires cholesterolPrimary atypical pneumonia
Neisseria gonorrhoeaeIntracellular Gram-negative diplococcus, Produces an IgAase and a penicillinase plasmid, Purulent exudate, Requires chocolate agar (Thayer-Martin), Oxidase-positiveUrethritis, Pelvic Inflammatory disease, Conjunctivitis in newborns
Neisseria meningitidisAntiphagocytic capsule, Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), IgAase, Vasculitic purpura, Headache and stiff neck are commonMeningococcemia, Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome, Arthritis
NocardiaAerobic soil bacterium, Inhalation transmissionPulmonary infections in compromised patients
Proteus mirabilisHighly motile, produce ureasePneumonia, nosocomial infections
Pseudomonas aeruginosaGlycocalyx slime layer, Pyocyanin (blue-green pigment), Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), Exotoxin A (ADP-ribosyl transferase)Burn infections/septic shock, Pneumonia and septic shock in neutropenic and cystic fibrosis patients
ShigellaNo known animal reservoir, Pathogenic in small numbers, Perpetuation by human carriers, All have endotoxin and are invasive, Sh. dysentariae has shiga toxin, Stools can contain mucus, pus, and blood, Bloodstream invasion is rareShigellosis (inflammatory diarrhea)
Staphylococcus aureusGrape-like cluster morphology, Antibiotic resistance, Catalase and coagulase-positive, Enterotoxin, Short incubation period (hours)Local abscesses, Impetigo, Food poisoning, Endocarditis, Osteomyelitis, Sepsis (MSSA, MRSA)
Staphylococcus epidermidisGram-positive, normal skin flora, Instrument contamination, Adherence through polysaccharide slimeEndocarditis (artificial valve) infections catheter, prosthetic devices
Staphylococcus saprophyticusGram-positive, catalase-positive, Coagulase negativeUTIs
Streptococcus agalactiaeCan be part of normal vaginal and oral flora, Capsule, Inhibits complementNeonatal sepsis (early and late onset), Neonatal meningitis
Streptococcus pneumoniaeAlpha-hemolytic diplococcus, Large antiphagocytic capsule, Quellung reaction, Sensitive to bile and optochin, Vaccines: adult: 23 capsular serotypes; Meningitis in infants and elderly, Pediatric: 7-valent capsule-protein, Anticapsular antibody is protectivePneumonia, Otitis media, Septicemia
Streptococcus pyogenesM protein (more than 80 types); anti phagocytic, Beta-hemolytic, Sensitive to bacitracin, Erythrogenic exotoxinsPharyngitis, Scarlet fever, Rheumatic fever and heart disease, Acute glomerulonephritis, Impetigo, Cellulitis–erysipelas
Streptococcus viridansNoninvasive opportunist in normal oral flora, Alpha-hemolytic, Differentiate from S. pneumoniae because the viridans strep are bile insoluble and not inhibited by optochinEndocarditis, Dental caries
Vibrio choleraeComma-shaped morphology, A/B enterotoxin overproduces cAMP, Vomiting and rice-water diarrhea, Oral rehydration solution or IVCholera
Yersinia pestisZoonotic disease (rats and fleas), Intracellular multiplication, Fever, conjunctivitis, regional buboesBubonic plague, Pneumonic plague, Yersinosis