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Alkanes

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Updated 2010-05-13 19:03

General

StatementMissing Words
In a Lewis structure, the ___ in a carbon chain don't matterbends
___ differ in the way the atoms are connected to each otherconstitutional isomers
A ___ is bonded to one other C atomprimary carbon (1o carbon)
A ___ is bonded to two other C atomssecondary carbon (2o carbon)
A ___ is bonded to three other C atomstertiary carbon (3o carbon)
A ___ is bonded to four other C atomsquaternary carbon (4o carbon)
A ___ is on a C bonded to one other C atomprimary hydrogen (1o H)
A ___ is on a C bonded to two other C atomssecondary hydrogen (2o H)
A ___ is on a C bonded to three other C atomstertiary hydrogen (3o H)
The general molecular formula for an acyclic alkane is ____CnH2n+2
The general molecular formula for a cycloalkane is ___CnH2n
The suffix ___ identifies a molecule as an alkane-ane
An ___ is formed by removing one hydrogen from an alkanealkyl group
methyl is abbreviated ___Me
ethyl is abbreviated ___Et
butyl is abbreviated ___Bu
tert-butyl is abbreviated ___t-Bu
secondary is abbreviated ___sec-
tertiary is abbreviated ___tert-
___ means a ring is presentcyclo-
___ are biomolecules that are soluble in organic solvents and insoluble in waterlipids
___ are biomolecules composed of many nonpolar C-H and C-C bonds, and have few polar functional groupslipids
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Energy and Conformations

StatementMissing Words
___ are different arrangements of atoms that are interconverted by rotation about single bondsconformations
In the ___ conformation, the C-H bonds on one carbon are directly aligned with the C-H bonds on the adjacent carboneclipsed
In the ___ conformation, the C-H bonds on one carbon bisect the H-C-H bond angle on the adjacent carbonstaggered
The staggered conformations are ___ than the eclipsed conformationsmore stable (lower in energy)
___ is an increase in energy caused by eclipsing interactionstorsional strain
Conformations that are neither staggered nor eclipsed are ___intermediate in energy
A staggered conformation with two larger groups 180o from each other is called ___anti
A staggered conformation with two larger groups 60o from each other is called ___gauche
___ is an increase in energy resulting when atoms are forced too close to one anothersteric strain
Gauche conformations are generally ___ than anti conformations because of steric strainhigher in energy
Staggered conformations are at ___energy minima
Eclipsed conformations are at ___energy maxima
Unfavorable steric interactions increase ___energy
The energy difference between the lowest and highest energy conformations is called the ___barrier to rotation
___ is an increase in energy when bond angles deviate from the optimum tetrahedral angle of 109.5oangle strain
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StatementMissing Words
In cyclohexane, ___ hydrogens are located above and below the ring (along a perpendicular axis)axial
In cyclohexane, ___ hydrogens are located in the plane of the ring (around the equator)equatorial
In cyclohexane, axial and equatorial H atoms are interconverted during a ___ring flip
In cyclohexane, the equatorial position has ___ than the axial positionmore room
In cyclohexane, larger substituents are more stable in the ___ positionequatorial
Larger ___ substituents create unfavorable 1,3-diaxial interactions, destabilizing a cyclohexane conformationaxial
___ are isomers that differ only in the way the atoms are oriented in spacestereoisomers
In disubstituted cycloalkanes, the ___ isomer has two groups on the same side of the ringcis
In disubstituted cycloalkanes, the ___ isomer has two groups on opposite sides of the ringtrans
A ___ isomer has two substituents on the same side, either both on up bonds or both on down bondscis
A ___ isomer has two substituents on opposite sides, one up and one downtrans
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Reactions

 

In the following table, Z stands for an element (like O, N, or a halide X) more electronegative than C (carbon).

 

Alkanes have only nonpolar C-C and C-H bonds and no functional group, so they undergo few reactions

 

StatementMissing Words
___ is the loss of electronsoxidation
___ is the gain of electronsreduction
___ results in an increase in the number of C-Z bondsoxidation
___ results in a decrease in the number of C-H bondsoxidation
___ results in a decrease in the number of C-Z bondsreduction
___ results in an increase in the number of C-H bondsreduction
Loss of electron density is ___oxidation
Compounds with many C-H bonds and few C-Z bonds are said to be in a ___ statereduced
Compounds with few C-H bonds and more C-Z bonds are said to be in a more ___ stateoxidized
CH4 is in a highly ___ statereduced
CO2 is in a highly ___ stateoxidized
Alkanes undergo ___, which means they burn in the presence of oxygen to form carbon dioxide and watercombustion
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Reference: Chapter 4 of Janice Gorzynski Smith's "Organic Chemistry" 2nd Edition,
McGraw-Hill, 2008 (ISBN=978-0-07-304986-1).

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