lauramacv11's version from 2015-12-08 00:09

Section 1

Question Answer
# of species used for food160
Red seaweed species (easily cultivated)Porphyra and Palmaria
What is red seeweed used for?Cultivated for sushi
Brown seaweed species (easily cultivated)Lammaria, aka kelp (Kombu)
Properties of brown seaweedHigh in carbs, iodine (used to treat goiter) and edible protein.
Brown seaweed vitaminsMany essential vitamins. Vitamin C levels equal to citrus fruits

Section 2

Question Answer
Where is algae found?All over the world: fresh water, sea water, salt water, Arctic ice and snow, deserts, hot springs
Lichens Algae plus fungal symbiont
CoralCoral and algae form symbioses
Sea slugGets products of photosynthesis by forming a symbiosis with algae

Section 3

Question Answer
What are Phycocolloids, what are the 3 types, and what 3 things are they used for?Hydrogels (includes Alginates, Carrageenans and Agars) harvested from algae. Used for food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical emulsifiers
What are Alginates, where are they found and how do they help maintain the strength and flexiblity of tides?Pectin-like substances. Found in cell walls and mucous-containing layers between cells. Help with tide strength/flexibiltiy because can absorb 200-300x their own weight in water
Carrageenans have certain thermally reversible qualities which include...Gelling, thickening and suspending qualities
What are Carageenans used for?Making proteinaceous foods: yogurt, ice cream, eggnog and chocolate drinks
Carageenans have a ______ range of applications than alginatesWider
Name the 2 scientific uses of agar.1) Growing of many cell types 2) Electrophoresis gels
What is agarose and why is it used in electrophoresis gels?Purifiied agar. Forms complexes with proteins used to clarify wines, juices and vinegars. Agar binds proteins and takes them out of suspension so can be clarified (made clear)

Section 4

Question Answer
List three ways algae is used as a fertilizerSoil conditioners, secretion of mucilage loosens soil, making green manure
Soil conditionersUsed as soil conditioners in coastal areas for 100s of years
Secretion of mucilageFacilitates loosening of compacted soil
What bacteria are found in green manure and what chemicals are they high and low in?Azolla and Anabaena. High in K and N, but low in P

Section 5

Question Answer
Western medicine is generally restricted to the use of...Phytococolloids
Wound dressingAlginate fibres polymerized into highly absorbant cloth for wound dressing
Eastern Asian medicine relies on...Physical properties and bioactive ingredients
Eastern medicine relies on algal physical properties and biomedical ingredients. Algae is used in treatment ofParasites, coughs, hypertension, venereal disease, control of tumour growth

Section 6

Question Answer
Antibiotic activitiesMany algal extracts have antibiotic activities
Polysaccharides from red algaeUsed to treat Herpes, cold sores and genital warts
Spirulina extracts inhibit... (2 things)cancer cell (tumour) growth and HIV-1 virus replication
Which algal extract boosts the immune system?Spirulina, keeps your disease from spiralling out of control!
How many amphidinolides are anti-cancer?35 bioactive molecules identified, SOME with anticancer activity
What do amphidinolides have anticancer activity against?Amphidinolides can have anticancer activity against leukemia, carcinomas and human tumor cell lines
Disrupted divisionAmphidinolides disrupt cell division in dividing cancer cells

Section 7

Question Answer
Algal toxinsVariable in effect, can be deadly
Toxin effects: 1) Environmental 2) Mild human harm 3) ____ ____ poisoning1) Depletion of O2 (causes death of ecosystems) 2) Contact dermatitis (Swimmer's itch) 3) Red tide poisoning (from eating infected shellfish)
Anabaena and Microcystis produce 1)________ 2)________Produce neurotoxins and hepatotoxins
Neurotoxins have a potential use in treatment of...Possible use in Alzeheimer's treatment
Hepatoxins cause: 1) ______ 2)________Cause tumour formation and blood to pool in the liver
Where are Anabaena and Microcystis found?The tropics
Might be useful as...Natural pesticides

Section 8

Question Answer
What is algaeoleum and what generation of ____ is it?A 2nd generation biofuel derived from algae. Sunflower oils etc are 1st generation biofuels. 1st generation= growing entire plants but only taking material from the fruits
Due to their high lipid content, algae can produce up to _____ percent of their biomass in oil60%
What type of fuel can algal carbohydrates be made into?Ethanol (an alcohol fuel derived from plant carbs and sugars)
How much faster is the harvest time of microalgae vs terrestrial biofuel crops?20-30x; harvest time 1-10 days
How much more oil do microalgae crops produce compared to traditional crops?300x more oil/acre
Microalgae crops can be grown in environments _______ ________ ___ terrestrial crops. Give 2 examplesNot suited to; deserts and saline environments