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Alcohol

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alex0624's version from 2016-06-27 22:17

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Question Answer
Enzymes systems metabolize ethanol to acetaldehayde and acetic acidAlcohol DH and Aldehyde DH
Increase NADH/NAD ratioMetabolism of alcohol
Drug that inhibits Aldehyde DHDIsulfiram
Facilitates action of GABA at GABA A receptorEthanol
Inhibits the ability of Glutamate to activate NMDA receptorEthanol
cause Psycological and physical dependanceChronic ethanol consumption
Effect on liver: reduced gluconegenesis(hypoglycemia), progresses on to fatty liver, hepatitis, cirrhosis and liver failureAethanol
Increase risk of pancreatitis; also inflamation, scarring and bleeding of gut wallEthanol
Peripheral neurophaties(Wernicke-korokof syndrome)Ethanol
Management of Ethanol toxicityStop drinking; Thiamine administration
Patient presents with paralysis of external eye movements, ataxia and confused sate. Improve by giving ThiamineWernicke korsakoff syndrome
Increase incidence of hypertension, anemia and dilated cardiomyopathy; raises serum levels of HDLEthanol
Intrauterine growth retardation, MICROCEPHALY, poor motor coordinationFetal alcohol syndrome
Supportive measure: prevent resp depression and aspiration pneumonia; give fluids and electrolytesTreatment for Acute Alcohol intoxification
Pharmacological measure: give glucose(for hypoglycemia), thiamine, prevents seizuresTreatment for Acute ALcohol intoxification
Management of alcohol withdrawal syndromeThiamine, Long acting sedative(Diazepam, chlordiazepoxide)
In alcoholics with liver diseaseLorazepam and oxazepam
Intensity of withdrawal effects reduced byclonidine(alpha 2 agonist)
Drugs approved for alcohlismDisulfiram, naltrexone(opioid antagonist), acamprosate(NMDA antagonist)
Treatment leads to nausea, vomiting, headache, flusinf and hypotension each time patient drink alcoholDisulfiram
Constituent of canned heat and windshield cleanersMethanol
Intoxification includes: visual dysfunction, GI distress, shortness of breath and loss of consciousness. Metabolize to formic acid whic cause severe acidosis and retinal damage/blindnessMethanol
Metabolize to formic acid which may cause severe acidosis and retinal damafe/blindnessMethanol(canned fuel)
Treatment for methanol posisoning IV ethanol(have preference for Alcohol DH)
Inhibit methanol convertion to formaldehyde; thereby good for methanol intoxificationEthanol IV.
Inhibitor of Alcohol DH(RX methanol toxic)Fomepizole
Treatment for acidosis induced by formic acid toxicityBicarbonate
Done in high alohol levelsHemodialysis
Ethylene Glycol metabolismEthylene glycol--> Glycoldehyde-->Glycolic acid-->Oxalic acid
Metahol metabolismMethanol--> Formaldehyde--> Formic acid
used in heat exchanger, antifreeze formulations and industrial solventsEthylene Glycol
Exitation followed by CNS depression, metabolic acidosis, renal insufficiency due to oxalate deposition in renal tubulesEthylene glycol toxicity
Treatment for Ethylene Glycol ToxicityEthanol, Fomepizole
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