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Albin Drugs 6

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zomovefa's version from 2018-02-20 08:04

Diabetes Insulin

Question Answer
Lispro & AspartLance – pretty fast action
IsophaneIntermediate
UltralenteLong acting
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Gout

Question Answer
Most effective treatment?Colchicine -> Blocks MICROTUBULES leading to blocking of all rapidly dividing cells ->Disrupts CYTOSKELETAL-dependent functions
Current treatment?Indomethacin -> Blocks COX 1 & 2
Treatment in kidney failure ptsSteroids
Chronic/ Recurrent goutAllopurinol-> Blocks Xanthine Oxidase / Probenecid -> Increase excretion of uric acid by blocking the reabsorption of uric acid
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Question Answer
DOC OF choice for Bacterial vaginosisClindamycin or Metronidazole since it is an g- anerobe
Dobutamine MOAb-Agonist -> Positive inotropy, Increase HR, Contractility & Increased myocardial consumption
Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia LAdenosine -> sx are flushing, chest burning, high grade block
NSAIDS & Furosemide should never be given togetherFurosemide increase prostaglandins but ibuprofen & NSAIDS inhibit prostaglandins
HER2 SignificanceAre most likely more aggressive and CANT be treated with tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitor -> Instead with Trastuzumab
Ciprofloxacin inhibitor or Inducer?Inhibitor which INCREASES levels of other drugs
Generalized anxiety short term txBenzodiazepines -> Increased frequency opening of chloride channels
B Blocker nonspecific drugina diabetic only symptoms you would see isSweating
Meperidine opiod contraindicated with other drugs such asSSRI's OR MAO'S -> blocks 5-HT reuptake
What drug worsens pheochromocytoma hypertension?Non selective b-blocker without giving an alpha blocker ->
WFW syndrome DOC to control V-fibProcainamide Class Ia
2-pamPralidoxime
DOC for H.PyloriOmeprazole, Clarithromycin and amoxicillin
Edema DOC that work synergistically with eachotherFurosemide+Hydrochlorothiazide
RanitidineInhibits the histamine H2 receptors of the parietal cells
Norepinephrine by itself causeshigh bp + low hr
Drugs that can cause acute or angle closure glaucomaDiphenydramine, amytriptyline, chlorpromazine, atropine, scopalamine, oxybutinin, tolterodine, tropicamide, meperidine Anti cholinergic
tolterodineBlockade of muscarinic acetycholine receptors-> decreases spasms of the bladder
Epinephrine reversalEpinephrine first increases bp -> Alpha antagonist given (phentolamine) -> Administration epinephrine causes decrease in BP
Doxycyline contraindicated inPregnancy
Thiazide can increaseAldosterone due to depletion of fluids and k from body leading to increased angiotensin II
DOC for Actinomyces israelliG+ anerobe bacteria -> Penicillin
Drugs that cause SIADHFluoxetine, TCA, MAOI's, antipsychotics, anti convulsants, anti neoplastics (Hyponatremia, Hypo Osmolarity,Impaired water excretion
Neuraminidase inhibitorsInhibits release or AKA maturation of virus
Metronidazole most common sxGI distress
Prostaglandins antagonist (Indomethacin) contraindicated in which kidney conditionNephrotic conditions due to constriction of afferent artery -> Lack of blood flow to kidney
Inducer drugs can decrease levels ofOral Contraceptives (Fat soluble) -> Amenorrhea-> Pregnant
Sumatriptan sxAssociated with development of ventricular arrhythmias, severe hypertension & serotonin syndrome Contraindicated in Prinzmental angina
Magnesium sulfate MOAInhibiting the release of acetylcholine at the motor end plate by inhibiting muscle via competitive inhibition of calcium
Chloroquine sxReactivation of psorasis & chloroquine induced retinopathy -> GIVE INSTEAD atovaquone
Pralidoxime for organophosphate poisoning treats byCorrecting excessive stimulation of nicotinic receptor by acetylcholine -> Treats muscle paralysis
ACE inhibitors contraindicated inRenal artery stenosis
ACE inhibitors VERY good inADPKD -> Because this condition produces high renin causing RAS activation so this drug inhibits Angiotenin I to Angiontenin II
What drugs are contraindicated in mysthaneia gravis pts?Aminoglycodsides, Chloroquine, PPP. Ciprofloxacin, Botulinm toxin ->
Diagnosis of MGEdrophonium
Pyridostigmine VS PhysostigmineMysthenia Gravis tx VS Atropine overdose/Glaucoma tx
Pyridostigmine/Neostigmine MOAAcetycholine estrase inhibitior -> preventing degradation of acetylcholine -> Increasing stimulation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on skeletal muscle
Phenylphrine vs AtropineIncrease BP VS Increase BP& HR
Endometritis txGnRH analog
What drug antagonizes donepezil(cholinergic)?Anti-Cholinergic -> Inhibits parasympathetic
Parkinson tremor antimuscarinicTrihexyphenidyl -> Sympathetic
Zileutin VS LukastsArachnoid -> Leukotriens inhibited VS Leukotriene receptors blocked
Drugs that cause HYPERlipidemiaMetoprolol & Thiazides
BumetanIDELoop diuretic
Na K pump inhibitor at the distal convoluted tubule think of ACE inhibitor
Pt stops a medication because she ran out and now has a rebound hypertensionClonidine -> Important to slowly take them off this medication
Linezolid has weak MAO-I activityDO NOT GIVE with SSRIs.
Diphenyrdramine contraindicated iwth glaucoma pts due toAnti-Muscarnic effect -> Mydrasis
Quinidine is anINHIBITOR
Outdated Tetracyline(doxycyline) or Aminoglycoside, cisplatin, tenofovir, ifosfamide, valporic acid can causeFanconi Syndrome
Amiodarone treatsSVT, V-tach, V-fib, Refractory ventricular tachycardia
Acetylcholine + Hexamethonium causesA greater decrease in HR than ACH by itself because the baroreceptor itself is removed
Acetycholine + AtropineProduces virtually no effect because atropine is non selective cholinergic antagonist which prevents action of ACh
ACh stimulatesM2 receptors receptors in SA node causing decrease in HR
DOC to reverse the effects of vecuronium(Non depolarizing) & Stage II Succinylcholine effectsNeostigmine -> Acetylcholine esterase inhibitor
DOC for treating pts who have agranulocytosis from PTU or methimazole txB-blockers such as Propanolol & atenolol
Levothyroxine tx leads toDecreased TSH, Increased T4
Dihydroergotamine used for migraine sxRaynaud's phenomenon, Peripheral vascular ischemia
Bethanechol & Neostigmine used in postopertative paralytic ileusBethanechol muscarnic agonist VS Neostigmine Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor
Diabetic gastroparesis nausea vomiting postprandial fullness constipation txMetoclopramide
Rhabdomyolysis drug inducedStatins
Torsades pointes drug inducedQuinidine
Rebound hypertension drug inducedClonidine
Diabetes insipidus drug inducedLithium
Agranulocytosis drug inducedClozapine
Omeprazole increasesGastrin secretion by G cells due to lack of inhibition causing increase in gastric pH
Dronabinol and megestrol acetate dxstimulate appetite
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Question Answer
What is the anti-platelet effect of aspirin for MI?Thromboxane A2 NOT Cyclooxygenase
DOC for Ulcerative colitisMesalamine, olsalazine, Sulfasalazine
Methamphetamine MOAInduce dopamine & norepinephrine release
What hormone is responsible for reinforcing effects of methamphetaminesDopamine
What drug to avoid in crush injury or rhabdomyolysis ptsSpironolactone
Tetracycline-> minocycline MOAPrevents attachment of aminacyl-tRNA to ribosomes
DOC for Pyelonephritis due to e.coliFluoroquinolones such as Ciprofloxacin
Fluoroquinolones such as Ciprofloxacin are contraindicated in pts who takeIron or calcium containing drug such as antacids due to decreased absorption of Fluoroquinolones
Receptor for schizophrenic pts and extrapyramidal symptomsDopamine receptor antagonist (Antipsychotic - Haloperidol & Fluphenazine) -> Increased cAMP
ASpirin sensitive asthmaBlock Cyclooxygenase so everything goes down the leukotriene pathway -> Seen in pts with nasal polyps
Asthma TreatmentMild(every now and then) -> B2 agonist, Mild persistent(more than 2 flareups per week) -> Children<5 Cromolyn / >5 add Inhaled steroid & B2 agonist, Moderate persistent add long acting B2 agonist, Severe persistent addoral steroid daily, All else fails Omalizumab
Prolonged increase in cAMP for prophylaxis of asthma symptomsSalmeterol ->b2 agonist slower onset of action with longer duration
Penicillin allergic pts who is having Jarisch Herxheimer reaction(hypotension, fever, rash) is treated byTNF alpha inhibitor
Ventricular Tachycardia -> Type IB antiarrhythmics oral drugMexiletine & tocainide -> Similar MOA to Lidocaine(IV) -> Block fast Na channels
Drug that you CANT take with antacids or milk productTetracycline -> milk binds to the drug in GI decreasing absorption
Thrombolytics labsTPA => PT & PTT affected
DOC for dissolving gallstonesUrsodiol -> aka ursodeoxycholic acid -> MOA - Primarily reducing cholesterol synthesis and secretion into bile
b-blocker + calcium blocker leads toHeartblock
Treat & management of RAMethotrexate & Sulfasalazine
Treat acute symptoms of RACelecoxib cox2 inhibitor
Mannitol tx for ICPDecrease ICF, Increased ECF & Osmolarity
AML DOCCytArabine -> MOA- Inhibit DNA polymerase / Sx- Pancytopenia, Megaloblastosis
PentagastrinInceases gastrin
Pentagastrin + h2 blockerDecreases gastrin
TZDs contraindicated inHeart failure patients
Metformin contraindicated inRenal failure
Klebsiella DOCCefotaxime -> 3rd generation cephalosporin
Tolterodine dxUsed to treat overactive bladder
Ceftriaxone MOAInhibits peptidoglycan synthesis through the blockade of transpeptidation enzyme
Anti-emetic drug used to antagonizing dopamine receptorProchlerperazine
Chloramphenicol MOAInhibits Ribosomal peptidyl transferase
Treponema Pallidum treated withPenicillin for pregnant women -> Sx - Jarisch-Herxihemuer Reaction -> Headache & Myalgias -> FIRST 24HR OF TREATMENT
Treponema Pallidum treatment for pencillin allergic ptsDoxycycline or tetracycline for non-pregnant women
Heparin indirectly inactivates thrombin(factor IIa) byActivating Antithrombin III
PE pt, treatment with a medication that causes immediate inactivation of Factor IIa?Heparin -> Monitor with PTT
Drug that decreases heart rate but NO effect on contractilityIvabradine -> Inhibit funny sodium channels during phase 4
Pt started on Infliximab presents 10 days later with joint pain, pruritic skin rashSerums Sickness-> Decreased serum C3 & C4 level TYPE III
Lumacaftor & IvacaftorHelps CF pts get the CFTR protein
anti-EGFR DRUGSCetuximab & pantiumuanab
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