AIS 318 Terms

bawalire's version from 2018-02-27 23:12

Section 1

Question Answer
FatwaA ruling on a point in the Qur'an. Must be done by someone in authority (usually a mufit, who is skilled in religious law)
FitnaCivil War, or other general strife and unrest in a community.
FiqhIslamic jurisprudence (theory or philosophy of law)
HadithStory about Muhammad that is considered true. It guides modern Muslims on issues that Muhammad did not speak about.
ImamLeader. Sunnis it can be any type of religious leader, but Shi'a it is the ruler over all Muslims (they're the ones who believe in a twelfth imam)
Jihad"holy struggle" Greater is against sinful obstacles to union with Allah. The lesser is physical violence to protect Islam from persecution and oppression.
Tawhididea of the Oneness of Allah
UmmahMuslim community
UlemaLearned scholars on the Qur'an
Shari'a"the straight path" Islamic Law
Mullahan educated person who has a degree in hadith, tafseer, and fiqh
Muftihighest educated, level up from mullah
Sheikhrespectful title for a teacher

Section 2

Question Answer
Shahadah"There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is his prophet" Muslim profession of fiath
Qibladirection for prayer
Ansarthe helpers (they welcomed Muhammad in Medina)
SufismMuslim mysticism that focuses on a deep understanding of Allah
ImanFaith. Entails the 5 pillars of Islam.
FalsafaIslamic philosophy
IjtihadLegal interpretation
ShirkIdolatry. Associating anything with Allah. Polytheism.
CaliphMore political ruler than religious.
Jahiliyyahthe time of ignorance before Muhammad was around
MahdiA redeemer of Islam that will come to reign for several years before the Day of Judgement. He will remove evil.
AbbasidsRulers of the Islamic Empire from 750-1258

Section 3

Question Answer
QurayshHighest social clan in Islamic culture. Seen as leaders and some believe they should be in the caliphate
Banu HashimThe clan Muhammad was from
Abu BakrFirst successor to Muhammad. They were good buddies in life. He only ruled for a few years.
FatimidsShia rulers in Cairo from 969-1171 until conquered by Saladin
Seljuks1038-1194 Turkish dynasty
HusaynAli's son (Muhammad's grandson) who was martyred in the Battle of Badr
Hadith of GabrielMost important hadith that outlines the Muslim faith and the pillars of Islam
'AliMuhammad's son. He was the fourth and last caliph of the Rashidun
Aisha Abu Bakr's daughter. This marriage formed an alliance.
Ash'aritesSunni based Kalaam theology that beliefs in the ultimate sovereignty of Allah as well as the createdness of the Qur'an
MuawiyyaFounded Umayyad dynasty. Fought Ali, unified Islam under himself
Kharijitessomehwat radical group. Disliked Ali's actions after the Battle of Siffin.
Shi'aThe 'partisans' of Ali
KhadijaMuhammad's first wife
Umayyads661-750 Empire in Syria. Their first leader was Umar, followed by Mu'ayiqah

Section 4

Question Answer
Ta'limites/BatinitesMostly depend upon interpretation to reveal what is in the Qur'an?
SunniFollowers of "the way" of Muhammad (85% of modern Muslims)
HijraMuhammads flight from persecution in Mecca to Medina
Year of the ElephantYear Muhammad was born, Yemeni Christians invaded Mecca on elephantback.
Ashuraanniversary of the death of Husayn and his family (Shia). It is celebrated in the month of Muhurram
Battle of Badr624. Muslims win this first fight against Meccans.
Battle of Siffin657. Ali's supporters fought the Syrian Mu'ayiqah's forces. Ali became caliph but didn't punish enemies.
Battle of Karbala680. Husayn's martyrdom by Umayyad Yazid I's forces (he got the throne from Mu'ayiqah after Ali's death)
Mihnathe period of persecution of the Asharites when Abbasid caliph forced Mu'tazilte theology (Qur'an is created)
Night of PowerThe night when Gabriel came to Muhammad and told him to "recite"
HijazWestern Arabia
YathribMedina (250 miles north of Mecca)
Ghadir KhummHadith that Shia claim records the moment when Muhammad appointed Ali as successor
Bayt al-Hikmah"House of Wisdom," philosophy school
Al-AndalusThe name of Islamic rule on the Iberian peninsula
Ka'baThe cube building that holds the black stone believed to have been given to Abraham by Gabriel.
RashidunRightly guided caliphs