Describe the principles of effects-based targeting.
Effects-Based targeting is the selection of targets that, when attacked will produce desired physical or psychological consequences. These consequences should lead to the to the achievement of objectives.
Define centers of Gravity (COGs).
Primary sources of moral or physical strength, power, and resistance.
what are Warden's five rings?
Leadership Infrastructure Population Fielded Military Forces
Describe each of Warden's five rings.
Leadership - Command structure Organic Essentials - Those facilities or processes without which the state or organization cannot maintain itself. Infrastructure - Enemy state's transportation system Population - Moral Objections Fielded Military Forces
Describe the four components to the Dr. Strange Model.
Centers of Gravity
- Primary sources of moral or physical strength, power, and resistance
Critical Capabilities -
Abilities that allow a center of gravity to act as such
- Resources and means for a critical capability to be fully operative
Critical Vulnerabilities -
If attacked could achieve decisive results or significant results disproportional to the military resources applied in the attack
Describe Nodal Analysis
Technique used to model a system by breaking the system into its component parts (nodes) and then analyzing and describing the relationships (links) between those component parts. Understanding how a system works helps us to determine the most effective and efficient ways to affect that system.
1.Define the terms Intelligence, Surveillance, and reconnaissance
product resulting from the collection, Processingm integration, analysis, evaluation, and interpretation of available information. It is the information about an adversary obtained through observation, investigation, analysis, or understanding
is definded as the systematic observation of aerospace, surface or subsurface areas, places, persons or things by visual aural, electronic, photographic or other means.
is defined as a mission undertaken to obtain, by visual detection or other means, the information about activities and resources of an enemy or potential enemy, or securing data concerning the meterlogical, hydrographic, or geographic characteristics of a particular area.
2.Define the intelligence collection disciplines
Imagery Intelligence - IMINT
is Intel that is derived from visual photography, infrared sensors, lasers, electro-optics, and radar sensors
Signals Intelligence - SIGINT
is the collection of all communications intelligence, electronic intelligence, and foreign instrument intelligence, however transmitted.
Measurement and signals Intelligence - MASINT
is scientific and technical intelligence obtained by quantitative and qualitative analysis of data
Human Resources Intelligence - HUMINT
is the Intel collected by people in the area of interest
Open Source Intel- OSINT
is Intel that is available to the general public
2.1 Define the AF ISR principles
Integrated - ISR
must be integrated to meet the timeliness and accuracy requirements of aerospace power
Information must be as accurate as possible. Accuracy implies reliable and Precise.
ISR product is tailored to the war fighters need.
- ISR must be available for planning and execution.
Fusion - ISR
information from many sources is combined, evaluated, and analyzed to produce accurate Intel.
ISR Intel must be readily accessible and usable
Personnel need to protect classified information and sensitive sources while keeping commanders informed.
Survivability, Sustainability, and Deployability -
Must be durable maintainable and small and agile enough to deploy
Unity of effort -
Organizations at all levels must have clearly defined functions to prevent duplication and maximize sharing.
Sharing of ISR, acquisitions, operations systems, and personnel. System must be able to transmit accurate and usable information timely
2.2 Define the AF ISR Process and its seven steps
The ISR process has seven steps and is continuous. To start the process a requirement for information must be identified.
starts after a need for a information has been establish and validated; it is then prioritized among the other requests for information and is given the proper ISR assets for the ISR response.
is after planning and is when the ISR assets are tasked to collect information.
is the execution of the assigned ISR mission.
is converting information into finished intelligence through analysis and fusion
5. Disseminating -
Giving the information that is required for application in a timely manner
6. Evaluating -
After the ISR prouduct is received, the user evaluates the product to see if it satisfies the requirement
7. Applying -
The application of the ISR product to the mission.
-the use of cyberspace to acquire, transmit and monitor information in order to gain knowledge
-thoroughly understanding the adversary (diplomacy, human intelligence, cultural studies)
2.1 Identify the mission/role of the US Army (p. 10-11)
To support and defend the Constitution. Army forces are the decisive component of land warfare in joint and multinational operations. They fight and win the nation's wars and achieve directed national objectives. They not only fight and win the wars, they also deter them. They shape the international security environment through peacetime military engagement (PME) activities. Army forces help civil authorities, both at home and abroad, prepare for and respond to natural or manmade disasters as well.
2.2 Describe the Army Corps, Division, Brigade, and Battalion
-basic unit of maneuver at tactical level (10,000-17,000 soldiers).
The Army has 5 types of divisions
Airborne Infantry, Air Assault Infantry, Light Infantry, Mechanized Infantry, and Armor
Brigade (p. 23)
-The primary warfighting organization in the Army. Contains 1,500-3,200 soldiers. Usually commanded by an O-6.
- 3 Companies make a Battalion. It's the first level where infantry is usually combined with other arms. At this level, the infantry has all of the weapons it needs to conduct small unit operations.
3.1 Describe the Army's view of airpower
They need our help for CAS and interdiction. They have attack helos for fire support. For mobility they have air assault and airborne, but they rely on the AF for most of their mobility. For ISR they have UAVs, but no satellites. They provide air defense artillery, and Patriots and Stingers.
4.1 Describe the four types of Marine Air-Ground Task Forces
Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF)- Commanded by a 3 star. Has an average of 40,000 marines. It's the senior warfighting echelon of the USMC.
Marine Expeditionary Brigade (MEB)
- The Premier response force for smaller-scale contingencies so prevalent today. There are 3 numbered MEBs...one with each MEF. Usually commanded by a one star, and usually has 20,000 Marines. It can sustain itself for 30 days. They are amphibious and on-shore capable.
Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU)
- Marine's first-on-the-scene force. They are self-sustaining. Commanded by a Col. and can sustain itself for 15 days. Poised for quick reaction, sea-based, crisis response options either with a conventional amphibious, expeditionary role or in the execution of maritime special operations. It can be airlifted or deployed on 3-5 amphibious ships.
Special Purpose MAGTF (SPMAGTF)-
For rapid deployment to complete a specific missions, humanitarian relief, disaster and crisis response, peacetime engagement activities, or regionally-focused exercises and training assistance. They're designated as SPMAGTF with a mission, location, or exercise name (SPMAGTF Somalia, etc)
5.1 Define the USMC view of airpower
They can disembark fast and move light with maximum flexibility. Air power is artillery and armor for them. Aviation gives firepower that would ordinarily come from slow moving ground weapons
6.1 Identify the concept of maneuver as the Marine's warfighting philosophy
Basically the whole concept of a MAGTF
7.1 Identify the mission/role of the US Navy
To maintain, train, and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The Navy protects our external frontiers. Wartime missions also know roles include Strategic Deterrence, Power Projection, Sea Control/Maritime Supremacy, Forward Naval Presence, and Strategic Sealift.
8.1 Describe the Navy's Type commands and Operational commands
Type Commands are like an Air Force Wing. They are responsible for administration, training, and readiness of assigned naval forces. Naval Aviation Type Command (COMNAVAIRLANT and COMNAVAIRPAC), Surface Ship Type Command (COMNAVSURFLANT and COMNAVSURFPAC), and Submarine Type Commands (COMSUBLANT and COMSUBPAC)
Operational Commands mix the Type Commands.
They are COMPACFLT (commander Pacific Fleet), COMLANTFLT (Commander Atlantic Fleet), and COMUSNAVEUR (Commander Europe). They report to their unified commanders (USPACOM, etc.)
9.1 Describe the Navy's view of airpower
It's used for fleet defense, close combat support for SEALS and Marines (ISR, OCA/DCA, SEAD, CSAR), and it performs offensive operations either by themselves or as part of joint operations.
in combination with cruise missile equipped ships and submarines, can project decisive, dominant military power from the sea.
1. State the reason why the United States intervened in the Persian Gulf following Iraq's invasion of Kuwait.
Kuwait's sovereign territory had been invaded by an aggressive nation, capturing their people as well as 10% of the known oil. With such an economic center of gravity endangered, the President had an important national security interest at stake. Also, he US felt forced to intervene to ensure Kuwait's sovereignty in the face of aggression.
2. List the key members of the US-led coalition developed after Iraq's invasion of Kuwait.
They were Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Britain, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates.
3. List the national objectives set forth by National Security Directive 54.
1. Immediate, complete and unconditional withdrawal of all Iraqi forces from Kuwait. 2. Restoration of Kuwait's legitimate government. 3. Protection of the lives of American citizens abroad. 4. Promotion of security and stability of the Persian Gulf.
2.1 - State the major innovations of the proposed INSTANT THUNDER air campaign plan.
The plan's major innovation was that it focused attacks on centers of gravity in Iraq in order to obtain "strategic paralysis," instead of focusing attacks on fielded forces in Kuwait. It proposed a massive, week-long air attack to incapacitate, discredit and isolate the Saddam Hussein regime, eliminate Iraqi offensive/defensive capability... and create conditions leading to Iraqi withdrawal from Kuwait. It also called for one air boss to have total control over the air tasking order—the JFACC. The theory of centralized command and decentralized execution finally seemed achievable.
2.2 - Explain the transformation of the proposed INSTANT THUNDER plan into the phased air campaign plan for Operation DESERT STORM.
General Powell wanted to destroy the Iraqi army from the ground; he also said that he couldn't recommend only the strategic air campaign to the President. So Col warden and his team began turning Instant Thunder into Operation Desert Storm. They incorporated attacks on Iraqi forces, folding in the Navy and Marine Corps, coalition aircraft, and Tomahawk missiles. The Instant Thunder name was changed to "Offensive Campaign Phase I" to match the evolving four-phase air and ground war being planned at USCENTCOM HQ. The original list of 84 targets grew to 174 by mid September and expanded to 237 by early December, when more aircraft arrived in the theater. Phase I settle on 12 interrelated target groups or sets. These were leadership strikes focusing on Saddam Hussein regime and internal control organs such as intelligence, security, and the Baath party apparatus, which remained central to "severing" the republican Guard's ties to command. Phase II called for gaining and maintaining air superiority. Phase III would be the softening of the Republican Guard troops to make the ground assault easier. Phase IV was the actual ground invasion.
2.3 - Identify examples of how operational elements contributed to success in Operation DESERT STORM.
Upgrades to the B-52, Precision Guided Munitions, proper use of specific airframes against different types of targets (A-10, B-52's and other interdiction aircrafts again armored vehicles). Modification and use of Patriots against the Scud.
2.4 - Describe key historical events within the Persian Gulf region and their impact on Operation DESERT STORM, such as the Battle of Khafji and the Iraqi Scud attacks on Israel.
The Battle of Khafji, as air interdiction was used to stop the advancing Iraqi III Corps, it proved for the first time that an entire division of ground troops, if left unprotected from air power, could be totally vulnerable to attack. With the Scuds event Lt Gen Horner had to realign his priorities in the air plan and put a large amount of assets on this military "