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AEP cultural exercise psychology readings

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bethdrysdale94's version from 2017-05-30 12:10

Section 1

Question Answer
Koshoedo 2015: purposeTo conduct a meta-ethnographic analysis of qualitative studies to identify barriers to Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) individuals engaging in physical activity in the UK context. 14 studies included, 175 participants
Koshoedo 2015:perception barrierssouth asian groups: exercise unecessary, causing harm/weakness/disease, selfish to abandon other responsibilities. exercise seen as "western", and culturally unintegrated. Bangladeshi: harmful, social sanction of gossip and laughter. Muslim women in UK: fear of racial or religious discrimination in areas unfamiliar to them
Koshoedo 2015: cultural expectations as a barrierDress codes: maintenance of islamic or south asian dress codes was a deterrent from exercise. Others: female cultural obligations after marriage, and curtailng of womens movements outside the home. Fear of breaking the rules and condemnation by cultural and social group. Lack of culturally sensitive facilities (single sex, same-sex instructors etc). South asian women: stay indoors, prioritise family responsibility over their own, domestic chores.
Koshoedo 2015: personal barrierstime constraints; social and work commitments. work commitments - financial stability important post-migration to the UK. South asian females: family and pride commitments more important than PA. excessive sweating and increased HR seen as a form of ill-health. ALL: lack of confidence and motivation, no perceived enjoyment, seen as a "formal and separate" activity. Language barriers, limited PA social networks, new services and skills that were unfamiliar.
Koshoedo 2015: access to facilities barriersclimate, distance, lack of information, lack of childcare and facilities in unfamiliar neighbourhoods. not necessarily specific to BME individuals, but cost may be more problematic to this population - considered wasteful and low priority. in country of origin, some facilities are free of charge and therefore its seen as expensive in the UK
Koshoedo 2015: discussion pointsPA = conforming to western society ie an identity threat. first gen migrants less likely to partake. work with BME groups on improving transport, increase safety, improve affordability. Should look into developing culturally sensitive programmes; same sex same ethnicity leader, flexible dresscode, interventions at religious and community centres. Mismatch between PA and health beliefs should be addressed.
Koshoedo 2015: Theorybecause many of the influences were perceived, can be closely attributed to behavioural theory; Theory of Planned and Reasoned Action. Reducing inequalities socially between BME and majority its difficult to develop a specific intervention for any group. Focus on individual perception and understanding - "perceived behavioural control".
Koshoedo 2015: limitationsmore than one lifestyle behaviour included in some studies; mostly targeted south asian population so not relevant to other BME groups. Future studies may need to include age, years of migration, distinction between UK born and first gen migrants.
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Section 2

Question Answer
Henwood 2007: purposeMaori health promotion programmes Korikori a iwi
Henwood 2007: informationFive Māori health providers1 in Te Taitokerau region (Northland, Aotearoa / New Zealand) implemented the Ministry of Health-funded Korikori a Iwi project. The project sites involved a mix of rural and small-town communities in the far north and the Whangarei area, which were led by a coordinator appointed in each of the communities. The broad health policy goal for the project was to improve health and wellbeing through health promotion programmes that promote healthy lifestyles. At a local level the objective was to develop community physical exercise and nutrition initiatives based on an integrated and holistic kaupapa Māori framework with Māori in the participating communities
Henwood 2007: evaluation - cultural, exercise and nutrition mixcultural approach of the programme, validating maori approaches and rekindling maori knowledge and practice from tradition - traditional and contemporary dances, rebuilding and restoring traditional buildings, regular walks to historic local places which included deeper understanding of environment and traditional healing practices etc. Use of traditional games, activities and weaponry repackaged as forms of exercise, entertainment, learning and coordination skills.
Henwood 2007: Local knowledge and leadershipEach coordinator contributed a wide range of personal and local knowledge, skills and high levels of innovation in applying Māori frameworks to address physical exercise and nutrition issues. Programmes were developed to capture the interest of, and engage with, a wide range of participants, particularly those often considered “hard to reach”, delivered in a user-friendly way, and utilised resources available locally. Used young maori in high profile community roles, more likely to be listened to and respected.
Henwood 2007: Stretching horizons about exercisealthough sport well respected in Maori culture, the project aimed to broaden exercise perceptions beyond sport for some people, particularly in maori culture based activities, eg weapon training was beginning to be viewed as a valid training and fitness regime.
Henwood 2007: Sustainability and other challengescommunities were going to take time to take ownership of the initiatives introduced by coordinators. Ongoing investment was required; coordinator was vital in nurturing and training young community leaders so work would continue at a high standard - workforce development issue. challenges in promoting health and wellbeing at a cultural level. A school didnt perceive cultural practice to be providing same opportunities or potential as sport and so demoted the activities to lunch time, marginalising maori students. Until challenged and worked with to reintegrate into the curriculum.
Henwood 2007: traditional Maori skills and teachings - Hauora Whanui approachcoordinator taught participants to create own equipment increasing envornmental and resources knowledge as well as tradition and exercise. Initiated a "train-a-trainer" programme - selected several future trainers who would return to the communities and teach the programme themselves - established the programme on weekly basis in several locations run by members of the community
Henwood 2007: ConclusionThe Korikori a Iwi project demonstrated the practical application of the theoretical framework of Te Pae Mahutonga, where each component was entwined in planning and delivery. Effective leadership was shown by the coordinators, and the level of autonomy that allowed for local development provided the impetus for development, while each of the cornerstones of wellbeing was also evident across the project activities. The project clearly worked from a Māori cultural basis, which incorporated environmental aspects of resource utilisation and learning, a holistic healthy lifestyle approach to all activities, and the encouragement and promotion of whānau to participate and be involved at a range of levels.
What is Te Pae Mahutonga?four central stars of southern cross bringing together elements of health promotion: Cultural identity; Physical environment; healthy lifestyles; participation in society
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Section 3

Question Answer
Rhodes & Nasuti 2012: purpose 263 participants, 2 questionnaires 2 weeks apart, measuring intention-behaviour discordance and translation of intentions into PA behaviour. The purpose of this article was to evaluate automaticity and cross-behavioral regulation as predictors of exercise action control, in conjunction with other more standard social cognitive predictors of perceived behavioral control and affective and instrumental attitudes.
Rhodes & Nasuti 2012: resultsthree intention–behavior profiles: (1) nonintenders (14.1%; n = 31), (2) unsuccessful intenders (35.5%; n = 78), and (3) successful intenders (48.6%; n = 107). Affective attitude, perceived behavioral control, automaticity, and cross-behavioral regulation were predictors of action control. The results demonstrate that automaticity and cross-behavioral regulation, constructs not typically used in intention-based theories, predict intention–behavior discordance.
Rhodes & Nasuti 2012: limitationsonly student participants. self-reported exercise, only two weeks although the results were similar to a six month assessment
Rhodes & Nasuti 2012: Summary this study showed the asymmetry in the intention–behavior relationship over a two-week prospective time-frame among a random sample of university students and demonstrated that almost half of the participants who intended to exercise regularly at baseline failed to meet those intentions. Affective attitude, perceived behavioral control, automaticity, and cross-behavioral regulation predicted successful versus unsuccessful intenders, but instrumental attitude did not. The results highlight the importance of understanding action control and highlight additional variables that may be needed to close the intention–behavior gap.
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