Adv bio

sherlock221's version from 2015-12-07 19:12

Section 1

Question Answer
Primary sequenceOrder in which amino acids are synthesised in the polypeptide
Secondary sequenceAmino acids forming hydrogen bonds
Tertiary structureOverall folding of the polypeptide and its final shape
Quaternary structureProteins made up of more than one subunit
Integral proteinsHeld in place by strong hydrophobic R groups, transmembrane, channels, transporters & receptors
Peripheral proteinsHeld in place by charged or polar amino acid R groups

Section 2

Question Answer
LigandSubstance that can bind to a protein
Induced fitChanging of conformation of protein causing functional change in protein
Allosteric enzymesOne which changes conformation upon binding a modulator
Negative modulatorsReduce enzymes affinity for substrate
Positive modulatorsIncrease enzymes affinity for substrate

Section 3

Question Answer
CooperativityChanges in binding at one subunit alters affinity of remaining subunits
PhosphorylationAllows activity of cellular proteins to be regulated
KinaseResponsible for phosphorylation
PhosphataseCatalyse dephosphorylation

Section 4

Question Answer
SacromereBasic unit of a muscle - contain actin and myosin
MyosinHeads act as cross bridges as they bind to actin
ActinHave myosin binding sites

Section 5

Question Answer
Transmembrane proteinsControl the concentration of ions & other molecules
Chemical stimulus (ligand gated)Controlled by signal molecules
Electrical stimulus (voltage gated)Controlled by changes in ion concentration
Facilitated transportPassive process, involves a conformation change in the protein
Active transportRequire energy
Receptor proteinsConvert extracellular chemical signal to a specific intracellular response
G-proteinsProteins which act as molecular switches
GDPDeactivates G-protein
GTPActivates G-protein

Section 6

Question Answer
FunctionsMaintaining osmotic balance in animal cells
2Generation of ion gradient for glucose symport in small intestine
3Generation & long term maintenance of ion gradient for resting potential in neurons
4Generation of ion gradient in kidney tubules

Section 7

Question Answer
Membrane PotentialElectrical potential difference across plasma membrane
Nerve transmissionWave of depolarisation of the resting potential across the plasma membrane
DepolarisationResting potential of membrane increases