Adult dev psych mid term part 1

michelleburkee2's version from 2016-10-29 02:36

Section 1

Question Answer
life span perspectivedevelopment occurs at all points of the life span
2 sections of life span perspectivechilhood/adolescense and young/middle/late adulthood
4 features of life span perspectivemultidirectionslity,plasticity, historical context, and multiples causation
multidirectionalitydevelopment includes both growth and decline. gains in one area may be offset by decline in another
plasticitycapacity is not predetermined or fixed. skills can be developed and improved throughout life
historical contextgenerational cohorts may share similar expierences (i.e. WWII)
multiple causationdevelopment is influenced by biological, pyschological, sociocultural, and life cycle forces
4 developmental forcesbiological, psychological, socio-cultural, and life cycle
what do developmental forces provideprovide the contexts in which humans develop
normative age graded influencesexpierences caused by biological, psychological and sociocultural forces that occur to most ppl of a certain age (i.e. identity formation, marriage)
normative history graded influencesexpierences that most ppl in a culture/country expierence at the same time(i.e. epidemics and stereotypes)
non normative influencesrandom or rare events expierenced by a certain individual (i.e. winning the lottery, rape) very unpredictable.
culturebasic world view of society (i.e. ages getting married around the world, how elderly are treated around the world)
ethnicityindividual and collective sense of identity. Based upon shared historical and cultural group membership and related behaviors and beliefs
primary agingnormal, disease-free portion of adulthood
secondary agingdevelopmental changes that are related to life style, disease, and changes that are not inevitable
tertiary agingrapid loss that occurs usually before death. terminal decline-rapid loss in cognitive and coping abilities years before death
chronological agetime is calendar time
perceived ageage people consider themselves to be
biological ageassessed through measurement of vital and life limiting organ systems
psychologicalfunctional level-memory,intelligence,feelings,etc.
socio-culturalset of goals ppl develop bc of their culture (i.e. get married, retire, etc.) aging stereotypes most often based on this
nature vs. nutureheredity vs. expierences
stability vs. changeas we grow do we become older versions of ourselves or new ppl
continuity vs. stagesdoes development occur gradually throughout time or through sequence of stages
universal vs. context specific developmentjust one path to development or several?

Section 2

Question Answer
biological developmental forces includegenetic and health related factors. i.e.graying of hair, menopause, face wrinkling, etc.
psychological developmental forces includeperceptual, cognitive, emotional and personality factors
socio-cultural developmental forcesinterpersonal, societal, cultural, ethnic factors, and socio-cultural
life cycle developmental forcesdifferences in how an event or combination effect a person at different points in their lives
biopsychosocial frameworkthe combination of biology,psychology, and sociocultural sources frame our life. health is a combination of forces
traditional biomedical modeldisease processes explained byunderlying deviation from normal function (i.e. pathogen, injury)
cohortgroup of ppl born at the same time
expirimental research designparticipants are randomly assigned to expirimental and control groups and an independent variable is controlled to observe effects on dependent variable
correlational designtests to see if two variables have a correlation
case study design an intensive investigation of individual people
cross sectional designpeople of different ages and cohorts are observed at the same period of time
longitudinal design examins one cohort in two or more times of measurment
sequential designcombination of cross sectional and longitudinal design
age related changes occur inneurons, neurotransmitters, brain structure, and brain organization

Section 3

Question Answer
whats a neuronindividual brain cell. conduct, receive and trasmit information
dendrites of a neuron function"listen"
axons of a neuron function"talk"
neuropsychological approach compares brain functioning of healthy older adults to adults displaying disorders in the brain
neurocorrelational approach attempts to relate meaures of cognitive performance to measures of brain structure and functioning
structural changes in neruons associated with aging neurofibliarly tangles
normative age related neuron changesdendritic compensation for neuron loss.
cerebral cortexinformation conrol center that is on the outer layer of the brain
two major hemispheres on cerebral cortexright-non speech sounds, face ecognition, and emotions left-language processing
dopaminogeneric systemneural systems that use dopamine as their major neurotransmitter. associated with higher level cognitive functioning. inhibition of thoughts, attention, and planning.
PFIT theoryintelligence comes from a distributed and intergrated network of neurons in the parietl and frontal areas of the brain
activation imaging links functioning brain activity to cognitive behavioral data
executive functioning ability to make and carry out plans, switch between tasks, maintain attention and focus and control concious mind
structural changes like brain volume shrinkage and how they relate to executive functioning less efficent informational processing, lower cognitive test scores, and memory decline
Stroop testmeasures reaction time to conflicting stiumli. Provides insight into executive functioning and reaction time. (font is the color yellow but says the word blue)
gray matterunmyelinated axons
white mattermyelinated axons that connect different parts of the brain and gray matter together
age related changes in frontal brain region correlate with executive dysfunction and memory decline
how does vascular system effect brain healthif blood vessls narrow then less blood could be brought to the brain therefore shrinkage of brain volume and densiy
white matter hyperintensitieslinked to hypertension. indicates myelin loss
decline of dopamine isnormal with age
dopmine pathways are associated with diseases such as schizophrenia and parkinson's disease
what changes in the brain lead to hypertensionwhite matter hyperintensities
fMRIexamines how changes in brain activity occur in relation to changes in task demands and types of cognitive functions examined
cognitive functioning decline is related todamages to frontal lobe
age related differences in brain activationdecreased activation in older adults
If DAMAGES to the Frontal Lobes are common with age, how is continued high functioning of older adults explained?compensation and prefrontal bilaterality
younger adults exhibit ______ in _________ unilateral activity in prefrontal cortex
older adults exhibit _______ in _______bilateral activity in right and left

Section 4

Question Answer
bilateral activationin older adults plays a supportive role in cognitive function. on both the left and the right side of the brain.
HAROLDhemispheric assemetry reduction in older adults. Younger adults show more unilateral activation while older adults show more bilateral activation
STACscaffolding theory of cognitive age. default network theory and the depression of default network. older adults less likely to suppress default network and this is linked to lower cognitive performance. Older adults need to scaffold or recruit increased brain areas(bilateral) to deal with the cognitive demand
default networkregions of the brain most active when brain is at rest
positivity effectolder adults attend to and remember better positive expierences
all ages have good memory foremotional information vs. nonemotional information. This has to do with the prefrontal cortex.
younger and older adults process _____ and ____ differentlypositive and negative information. older adults may have learned to process emotions differently.
younger adults remember more ______ infonegative
older adults remember more _______ infopositive
neurogenesisprocess in which new neurons are made. happens throughout lifetime
neuroplasticityability for brain to rewire itself. happens throughout lifespan but age related reductions
plasticityinvoles interation between the brain and the environment. expierences effect on structure and function of the brain.
aginggradual changes in strucutre and function that occurs with the passing of time and not because of disease
modifiable factors of againg influenced by nutrition and fitness
rate of living theoriesfinite amount of energy to expend in a lifetime
cellular theoriesfocus on cause of againg at cellular level
programmed cell deathinnate ability for cells to self-destruct and the ability of dying cells to trigger processes in other cells
3 rate of living theoriescaloric intake, metabolic rate, and adaptation to stress
3 cellular theoriesHayflick limit, cross linking, and free radicals

Section 5

Question Answer
metabolic rateslower metabolic rate in animals=longer life
caloric intakeless calori intake=longer life
adaptation to stressbody's ability to deal with stress lowers with age
hayflick limitnumber of times cells can divide is limited. when cells divide, telomeres shorten. aging and death results from telomeres being too short. excercise may slow the rate of telomeres shortening
cross linkingcertain proteins lead to stiffness in the body. may explain why body becomes stiffer with age. little evidence though so not adequate theory
telomeresstabalize rthe ends of chromosomes
free radicalsunstable molecules that cause damage to other molecules. antioxidants suppress free radicals. antioxidants may slow appearance of age related diseases but no indication that they can lengthen the life span
programmed cell death theoryaging programmed into genetic code. master genetic program underlying aging process. switched on and off. influences actions of other cells. evidence is that diseases have genetic aspects that might make a disease faster.
progeriaage too quickly inside and out and die young.
3 goals for aging research delay chronic illness, slow fundamental process of aging (increase life span), and reverse aging
changes of the autonomic nervous system with aging and body tempregulation of body temp is harder to decifer. increased risk for hyperthermia and hypothermia and dehydration
changes of the autonomic nervous system with aging and sleeptake longer to fall asleep, more easily woken up in sleep, and reduced sleep quality can have a negative effect on mood
life spans today vs. in the pastpeople live longer and are biologically younger than those of the same age years ago
maximum longevity def.oldest age to which any individual of a species lives. oldest person was around 120 years old.
active life expectancyliving to an active healthy age
dependent life expectancy years of living after loosing independence
_______ live longer than _____ but spend more time in a _____women live longer than men but spend more time in a dependent state
genetic factors and longevitystrong predictor of longevity. age of parents and grandparents at death
human genome projectgenetics and ability to cope with diseases. personalized medication
is longevity all in our genes?no. it is nature interacting with the environment
epigeneticsstudy of heretible changes in gene expression through either external or internal factors that do not change the underlying DNA sequence
environmental factors of developed countrieslifestyle factors
environmental factors of undeveloped countriesAIDS
why is social class related to longevity?lower social class= less access to goods, services, medical care, more health problems, and stress effects telomere length
higher social class means longertelomeres
ethnic differences in longevitylife expectancy for african americans is 5-6.5 years shorter, but by age 85 most african americans outlive whiteys
gender differences in longevitywomen outlive men.
involutionorgans begin to be replaced by fat
with age there are fewer ____ cellsT cells. because of this B cells become less efficent
pronlonged stress effects which nervous system?sympathetic (heart rate and respiratory system effected
theory of cognitive appraisal explains mental processes that influence reactions to stress
two step processenvironment produces a stressor and we find a way to minimize, tolerate, or eradicate the stressor
stressinteraction between a person and an event
primary stress appraisalcategorization of even at irrelevent, positive, or stressful
seconday stress appraisalevent appraised as stressful-can i hope?
reapraisaldue to situation change
action focused copingtake actions to solve the problem
emotional focused copingmore passive. involves strategies to gain emotional control or understanding of an event. no attempts to address problem directly
coping strategies for 80+more likely to use active coping
what type of coping is better for your health?active coping
ability to deal with stress _____ with agedeclines

Section 6

Question Answer
the disablement processdisability is the gap between personal ability and environmental demand. not a personal characteristic
intrinsic abilityability to perform a task without assistance or personal equipment
actual abilityability to perform task with necessary assistance
extraindividual intervention strategiesenvironmental and health care. supports independence.
intrainividual intervention strategiesbehavioral and personality
ADLSactivities of daily living
frailty1 or more ADLS. need assistance with everyday tasks.
IADLSinstrumental activites of daily living
what are the 6 types of ADLS?bathing, dressing, tolieting, transfering, continence, and feeding

Section 7

Question Answer
define bathing ADLneeds no assistance or assistance with bathing one part of the body
define dressing ADLgets no assitance dressing except for tying shoes
define tolieting ADLneeds no assistance going to the bathroom or fixing clothes. may use crane or walker and may use bed pan at night
define transferring ADLgets in and out of bed or chair without any assistance (may use cane or walker)
define continence ADLcontrols bowels and bladder by themselves without accidents
define feeding ADLfeeds themselves without assistance (except for with meat or buttering bread)
what are IADLS>require certain intellectual capacities and planning abilities. includes using phone, shopping, food preperation, housekeeping, etc.