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Adult-acquired Neurology - Dysarthria

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ness37's version from 2018-04-30 12:27

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Question Answer
DefinitionA motor speech disorder caused by the disturbances in neuromuscular control of the components of speech mechanism
CausesStroke, Parkinson's, Huntington's, MND, Brain injury, Cerebral Palsy, Multiple Sclerosis
Caused byDamage to central or peripheral nervous system
Types of dysarthria Flaccid, spastic, hypokinetic, hyperkinetic, ataxic and mixed
Flaccid Lesion site = LMN
SpasticLesion site = UMN e.g. bilateral stroke
Hypokinetic Lesion site = Basal ganglia, not enough dopamine e.g. Parkinson's
Hyperkinetic Lesion site = Basal ganglia, too much dopamine
Ataxic Lesion site = Cerebellum
MixedLesion site = both UMN and LMN e.g. MND
Features of Dysarthric speechImprecise articulation, reduced/inappropriate/variable intonation and prosody, weak voice, hypernasal speech and reduced rate of speech. Effects = stress, loss of confidence, vulnerable, affected by fatigue, less social chat, reduced social life
Motor speech assessmentFrenchay dysarthria assessment = Reflex, Respiration, Lips, Jaws, Palate, Laryngeal, Tongue, Intelligibility, Rate, Sensation
Auditory perceptual characteristicDifferent depending on type of dysarthria. SLTs can distinguish and help diagnose type from listening to speech and voice quality.
Clinical evaluation Involves: patient history, non-speech oromotor movement (range, rate, strength), vowel prolongation, AMRs (p,t,k), SMRs (ptkptkptk), contextual speech, intelligibility, word length/complexity, communication strategies etc
ManagementBased on behavioural approaches = education and explanation, physiological approach, compensatory approach, augmentative approach
Co-occurrence Dyspraxia, Aphasia and Dysarthria may all occur together with or without a cognitive impairment.
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