Adrenocortical hormones

robbypowell's version from 2015-07-14 01:03


Question Answer
where are adrenocortical hormones produced and released?Adrenal Cortex of Adrenal gland
What signals for the synthesis and secretion of Catecholamines (epinephrine & norepinephrine)?Sympathetic nervous system (this is not cortex)
Adrenocortical hormones mainly regulate what two things?Metabolism & Eltrolyte/Fluid balance
What 3 types of hormones are released from the Adrenal Cortex?Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone), Glucocorticoids (cortisol), Sex hormones
What does Go Find Rex... Make Good Sex stand for?Areas of Adrenal Cortex and corresponding hormone products; GFR (Glomerulosa, Fasciculate, Reticularis) MGS (Mineralocortisoids, Glucocorticoids, Sex hormones)
90% of Mineralocorticoids produced in Adrenal Cortex are ____Aldosterone
95% of Glucocorticoids produced in Adrenal Cortex are ____Cortisol
What is the most potent synthetic glucocorticoid?Dexamethasone (30 x cortisol)
What stimulates synthesis and release of Corstisol?ACTH
What is major effect of Glucocorticoids?Metabolism
All hormones produced in Adrenal Cortex are ____STEROIDS
All Adrenocortical hormones are derived from ____Cholestorol
The first step of hormone synthesis from cholesterol takes place in the ____ and converts cholesterol into ____Mitochondria; Progenolone
Final Common Pathway is the conversion of ____ to ____Cholesterol to Progenolone (same as 1st step of steroid synthesis)
Aldosterone & Cortisol finish their synthesis from Progenolone in the ____ while Androgens complete synthesis in the ____Mitochondria; Endoplasmic Reticulum
Can Adrenocorticoids dissolve in blood?No, because they are LIPID SOLUBLE
What plasma protein primarily carries Gluco-corticoids (Cortisol)?Cortisol-binding Globulin (aka TRANS-CORTIN)
What plasma protein can bind to ALL Adrenocorticoids?Albumin
What % of Gluco-corticoids (Cortisol) are bound to plasma proteins?90-95% (greater half-life)
What % of Aldosterone (Mineralocorticoid) is bound to plasma proteins?60% (half-life shorter than cortisol)
What cells have Cortisol receptors?Almost every cell in body
What cells have Aldosterone receptors?distal tubule of kidney
What does Aldosterone result in?Resorption of Na+ & Cl- in distal tubule, leading to water resorption (keep Na, Cl & H2O... lose more K+ & H+)
What stimulates the release of additional aldosterone?increased K+ concentration
What stimulates the release of renin from kidney cells?Low Arterial pressure
Renin converts ____ to ___Angiotensinogen to Angiotensin 1
Angiotensin 1 is converted to angiotensin 2 by ____ in the lungsACE
ACE is involved in the creation of this potent vasoconstrictorAngiotensin 2
ACTH is derived from ____, as are many different hormonesPOMC (Pro-opiomelanocortin)
How does a high Cortisol concentration lead to Ostopenia & Osteoporosis?Because it decreases dietary Ca absorption and increases urinary excretion (this leads to lower Ca levels and greater PTH levels)
Conn's syndrome (excessive excretion of K+ & H+, mucle weakness & alkalosis) is caused by an excessive ____ concentrationACTH (Hyperaldosteronism)
Cushing disease has the visible signs of ___face and ___ torso and is caused by an excess of ___ & ___moon-face, buffalo torso; too much cortisol & Aldosterone

Pituitary Hormones

Question Answer
the pituitary gland is located just below the _____Hypothalamus
What is the Adeno-hypophysis?Anterior pituitary
What is the Neuro-hypophysis?Posterior pituitary