ADJ Week 7

blueghost's version from 2017-03-26 13:58

Section 1

Question Answer
___ were instrumental in the first broad swing of the incarceration pendulum from punishment to rehabilitationquakers
___ adopted the "Great Law" in Penn in 1682William Penn
penitentiaryan early form of correctional facility that emphasizes separating inmates from society and from each other
separate confinement19th century system developed in PA, inmates were kept separate from each other at all times
congregate systeminmates worked and ate together in silence, separate cells during the night
___ in NY and ___ in PAcongregate, separate
NY's ___ used "new penology"Elmira Reformatory
medical modelmodel of corrections in which the psych and bio roots of inmate's criminal behaviour are ided and treated
___ used the medical modelprogressives
_________ model dominates the most restrictive prisons custodial model
custodial modelprisoners are incarcerated for reasons of incapacitation, deterrence, and retribution
rehabilitation modelstressed indiv treatment, worked on changing behaviour
reintegration modeltraining for existence in community; more responsibility during the incarceration, help for when go back to society
US has a ___ prison systemdual
___ is less evident in prisonscontinuity
wardenprison official who is ultimately responsible for the org and performance of a correctional facility
___ is the structure of prison managementhierarchy
___ is the necessary components of correctional facilities order, amenities, service
DiLulio said that prisoners will become _________ with the lack of the three necessary components in correctional facilitiesmore difficult to control
classification process through which officials screen each incoming inmate to best determine the inmate's security and treatment needs
classification helps to determine the best correctional facility
criteria for classificationseriousness of crime; risk of future criminal/violent conduct; need for treatment/rehabilitation
custody level is used forplacing an inmate in the right level of correction
custody levelresult of the classification process; security designation; helps decide level of correction
maximum-security prisoncorrection inst designed and organized to control and discipline dangerous felons and prevent escape
___ operate in a militaristic stylemaximum security prisons
cell blockscells that are located in rows and each form its own security unit
maximum security prisons usually _________ utilize cell blocks
supermax prisonshighly secure freestanding correctional facility manages offenders who would pose threat to the security or safety of others and staff if housed in general population
supermax prisons hold high-profile indivs, terrorists, those who have disciplinary infractions at max prisons
lockdowndisciplinary action taken by prison officials in which all inmates are ordered to their quarters and nonessential prison activities are suspended
___ operate in a perpetual state of lockdownsupermax prisons
medium-security prisonscorrectional inst that houses less dangerous inmates and therefore uses less restrictive measures
minimum-security prisonscorrectional inst that allows inmates who are low security risk a great deal of freedom and movement and contact with outside world
___ percent of prison population is in medium and ___ percent is in minimum45%; 20%
prison growth can be attributed to more enhancement and stricter enforcement of ___illegal drug laws
more people in prison today for ___ offenses than there were for all offenses in the early 1970sdrug
decarcerationthe lowering of incarceration rates
methods of decarcerationdecrease prob of nonviolent offenders sentenced to prison; increasing rate of release of nonviolent prisoners from prison; decreasing imprisonment rate for probation and parole violators
evidence-based strategiesstrategies supported by statistical research
private prisonscorrectional facilities by private corps instead of gov't, therefore reliant on profits for survival
reasons when private prisons are more cost effectivelower labor costs; competitive bidding; less red tape
jailfacility, usually operated by county, that holds persons awaiting trial, those guilty but have less serious offenses or midemeanours
jail funding is the _________ priority for local governments with tight budgetslowest
jail inmates are more likely to have been convicted of ___ crimesnonviolent
pretrial detaineesindivs who cannot post bail and are forced to spend time prior to trial in jail
time servedperiod of time a person denied bail (or who cannot pay) has spent in jail prior to trial
judges often credit ___ to sentence timetime served awaiting trial
fee systemsystem in which sheriff's department is reimbursed by gov't agency for the costs of housing jail inmates
inmates may be charged ___ feespay-to-stay
problems often held by jail inmatesmental illness; physical health problems; substance abuse and dependency
new-generation jailstype of jail that is distinguished architecturally by a design that encourages interaction and offers greater treatment opportunities
_________ design is used in traditional jailslinear design/traditional design
new generation jails use ___ designpod
direct supervision approachcorrectional officers are in continuous visual contact with inmates during the day

Section 2

Question Answer
total institutioninst that provides all the necessities of existence to those inside
_________ are total institutionsprisons
argotlanguage developed by inmates
prisonizationsocialization process of new inmates where they learn accepted norms and values of the prison culture
_________ means establishing themselves in the power structure of prison culturejailing
brown v. plataprisoners have const right to adequate health care
prison programsorganized activities for inmates that improve physical and mental health, provide vocational skills, or keep them busy
___ programs are subject to cost-benefit analysisrehabilitation
vocational training includeslandscaping, automobile repair, electrical work
therapeutic communitygroup-based form f substance abuse treatment that focuses on id-ing the underlaying problems of abusers to help change the neg behaviours
violence among prisoners is used to establish power and dominance
deprivation modeltheory that inmate aggression is the result of frustration of inmates when feeling deprived of freedom, consumer goods, sex, and other staples outside the inst
relative deprivationthe theory that inmate aggression is caused when freedoms and services that the inmate has come to accept as normal are decreased or eliinated
reasons for violencedeterrent against being victimized; enhances self image; sexual relief; means of acquiring material goods
prison segregationpractice of separating inmates based on characteristics such as gender, type of crime committed, or race
prison gangsgroup of inmates who band together within the corrections system to engage in social and criminal activities
gangs usually based onrace/ethnic id
security threat groupgroup of three+ inmates who engage in activity that poses threat to safety of other inmates or staff
block officerssupervise cell blocks
world detail supervisorsoversee small groups of inmates as they do tasks
industrial shop and school officersmaintenance and security of workshop and educational programs
yard officersleast seniority, work in the yard
tower guards8 hour shifts alone in towers
administrative building assignmentssecurity at prison gates, visitation procedures, liasions for civilians, admin tasks
goals of disciplinesafety and order, respect for authorites, teach values and respect
correctional officers find that ___ is the most difficult and stressful aspect of the jobdisciplining inmates
Whitley v. Albersuse of force by prison official violates 8th amendment protections only if the force is unnecessary
Hudson v. McMillanset the malicious and sadistic standard of force
hands-off doctrinewritten judicial policy that favors noninterference by the courts in the admin of prisons and jails
deliberate indifferencestandard for estabilishing a violation of 8th amend, requiring that officals were aware of harmful conditions and didnt take steps to fix
Estelle v. Gambledeliberate indifference standard
identifiable human needsbasic human necessities that correctional facilities are required to provide
wilson v. seiteridentifiable human needs standard
women are ___ percent of the prison pop7%
expiration releaserelease at the end of the sentence without any further correctional supervision
another name for expiration releasemaxing-out
pardonan act of executive clemency that overturns conviction and erases mention of crime from record
furloughtemporary releases for purpose of vocational or educational training, to ease the shock of release, or for personal reasons
probation releaserelease after a short period of incarceration at the end of shock probation
prisoner reentrycorrections strategy used to prepare inmates for transition back into community and reduce criminal activity after release
issues after release from prisonsecuring housing, hard to find employment, lack of job skills
desistanceprocess through which criminal activity decreases and reintegration into society increases over a period of time
work release programstemporary release for purposes of employment; may spend days on job and back in the correctional inst at night
halfway housescommunity based form of early release that places inmates in residential centers and allows them to reintegrate with society
expungement lawsallows removal of offenses from record for low-level criminals
ban the box lawsprohibit public employers from inquiring into criminal backgrounds with a criminal history box on application form
rearrest rates are the lowest for ___rapists and other forms of sexual assualt
conditions of sex offender releaseno contact with anyone under 18; psychiatric treatment; certain distance from children locations; no toys to lure children; no job that involves children
sex-offender notification lawsrequires law enforcement authorites to notify people when convicted sex offedneres are released into their neighborhood or community
civil confinementpractice of confining indivs agaist their will if they pose danger to community