ADJ 107 Midterm Theories

blueghost's version from 2017-04-05 14:31


Question Answer
deviant place theorystresses the greater exposure to dangerous places, the more likely individuals will become victims of crime and violence; stresses the environment not the individuals’ lifestyle impacts victimization rates
victim precipitation theory suggests some individuals may actually initiate the confrontation, which eventually leads to their injury or death
lifestyle theorysuggests individuals may become crime victims based their lifestyle; a prostitute or drug dealer is more likely to be exposed to criminality then an average person and therefore more likely to be victimized
rational choice theoryindividuals make conscious or “rational” decisions to break the law;
social learning theorymost recognizable branch of behavior theory related to criminology ; individual are not born violent, but learn aggressive tendencies through their various life experiences
arousal theory for a variety of genetic and environmental reasons, some individual brain’s function differently in response to environmental stimuli; Adolescents may engage in crimes ranging from shoplifting, vandalism, and drug and alcohol abuse simply because of the attraction of getting away with the crime;
nurture theorysuggests intelligence must be viewed as partially biological, but mainly sociological; do not believe individuals commit crime because of their low IQ; rather bad environments produce low IQ’s, which subsequently produce crime; reject the concept that crime is bound up with conflict, intelligence, or biological genes
social disorganization theoryexamine various social conditions within the urban environment, which influence crime rates; neighborhood ecological characteristics are at the core of criminality; use gang formation as a source of support for their perspective on crime
strain theorydepict crime as a form of problem-solving behavior committed in response to frustration and additional environmental factors; Due to relative deprivation, which is the economic and social gap between the rich and poor, strain develops; suggest divisions between the rich and poor create an environment of resentment and mistrust, which can lead to high crime rates, violence, and aggression
cultural deviance theory blend effects of social disorganization and strain to explain how individuals living in disadvantaged neighborhoods react to economic deprivation; subcultures as a central theme
general strain theorystates criminality is the direct result of negative affects such as anger, frustration, and hostile emotions from negative social relationships; Robert Agnew; the greater the intensity and frequency of strain experiences, the greater their influence and the more likely they result in criminality
differential opportunity theorysuggests legitimate and illegitimate socially structured opportunities allow success; all individuals within society share the same success goals, but those in the lower class have limited means of achieving the goals; Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin ;
differential reinforcement theorysocial learning theory; suggests individuals learn to evaluate their own behaviours through their interactions with significant others and groups; behaviours persist based on reward or punishment
differential association theorysocial learning theory; One of the more popular social learning theories ; Edwin Sutherland; criminality is learned through a process called “differential association” with others who transfer criminal values and promote crime; an individual becomes involved in criminal behavior when he or she identifies more favorable than unfavorable consequences to violating the law
neutralization theorydrift theory; social learning theory; David Matza and Gresham Sykes ; potential delinquents and criminals master techniques, which enable them to counter neutralize conventional values and drift between illegitimate and legitimate conduct
containment theory Walter Reckless; crime was the consequence of social pressures combined with the inability to resist these pressures, which presented a push or pull relationship toward crime;an individual with a positive self-image and respect toward authority figures is less likely to become involved in crime
social bond theoryTravis Hirschi ; most prominent social control theory;all individuals are potential law violators, but are kept under control because of their fear that illegal or deviant behavior will harm their relationships with friends, parents, neighbors, teachers, and employers; crime or delinquency occurs when the bond between an individual and a social group is absent, weakened, or broken.
social reaction theoryfrequently societal response to individuals involved in crime or delinquency creates a label, which subsequently contributes to additional criminality;
concentric zone theoryPoverty-ridden or as they called “transitional neighborhoods” experienced high rates of population turnover, thus the community was incapable of convincing residents to remain and defend the neighborhoods against criminal or delinquent groups; Shaw and McKay

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