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ADJ 107 Chap 2

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blueghost's version from 2017-03-15 11:17

Section

Question Answer
Victimology is...the study of victims of a particular offender
*Victimologist...are criminologists who solely study victims of crime
Criminologists must study victimization in order to...obtain valuable insight on crime
___ are the costs of victimizationpain and sufferings, damaged property, involvement of the criminal justice system
_________ is the primary reason many behaviours are deemed criminal.the social cost of public order crimes
Most victimization costs are covered by...insurance providers
*___ costs of crime are underestimated and so is the impact on victimspsychological and emotional
*____ is a common occurrence of victimizationPost-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
* ____ percent of all Americans experience some form of PTSD.Between 1-2 percent
*The cycle of violence isa repetitive culture of violence and abulse
*The cycle of violence is an example of how victimization can lead to ...anti-social behaviour
*According to the National Coalition Against Domestic Violence, abused women are ____more likely to abuse alcohol and drugs
*Lasting social costs of victimization includeseeking revenge, causing stress, causing social problems
*___ can increase ___ by sensationalizing crime within the communityMedia; fear
*Victims may turn to ___ to deal with pain following a crime. alcohol and drugs
*Victim characteristics include...gender, age, social status, and race
_________ are more likely to be victims of violent crime (excluding rape and sexual assault)Males
___ are more likely to be victimized by a family member, friend, or acquaintance.Women
___ are at a greater risk for victimizationyoung people
*Individual risk for victimization diminishes rapidly after age...25
*___ are the most likely to be victims of both violent and property crimeeconomically disadvantaged Americans
___ are more likely to become victims of violent crimes than whites.African Americans
___ causes racial minorities to be targets of victimization.social inequality, disadvantaged neighborhoods, poverty
Repeat victimization is...the higher chance of indivs who have been victimized before to be victimized again
*Approximately ___ percent of murder victims were related to the offender.22
Almost all criminological theories focus on ___ not the ___ of crimesperpetrators, not victims
Six categories of victims (Mendelson)(1) completely innocent; (2) victim with minor guilt; (3) victim as guilty as offender; (4) victim guiltier than offender; (5) guiltiest victim (self-defense killing); (6) imaginary victim (someone who believes they were victimized but has a mental disorder)
Three classifications of victims (Von Hentig)(1) general class; (2) psychological class; (3) activating sufferer class
*Schafer categorization of victims:unrelated, provocative, precipitative, biologically weak, socially weak, self-victimizing; politic victim
*Unrelated victimsno victim responsibility
*Provocative victimsvictim shares responsibility
*Precipitative victimssome degree of responsibility
*Biologically weak victimsno victim responsibility
*Socially weak victimsno victim responsibility
*Self-victimizing victimstotal victim responsibility
*Political victimno victim responsibility
*The victim precipitation theory...suggests come indivs may actually initiate the confrontation
Active precipitation when victims provoke, threaten, or attack the offender first
Passive precipitationwhen the victim displays personal characteristics unknowlingly threatening/ encouraging attack
*The lifestyle theory suggests...indivs may become crime victims based on their lifestyle
*___ are more likely to be exposed to crime than an average person, based on the lifestyle theoryprostitute or drug dealer
Deviant place theory says...the greater the exposure to dangerous places, the more likely to become a victim
Deviant place theory stresses ___ over lifestyle.environment
The routine activities theory states ...the volume and distribution of predatory crime are linked to interaction of three variables reflecting typical American lifestyle
Three variables in the routine activities theory...availability of targets, absence of guardians, presence of motivated offenders
*More than ___ percent of the general public has been victimized at lease once.75
*___ established the first victims' compensation plan in 1865California
*Every state jurisdiction allows victims to make a ___ before the sentencing to show how the victimization affected them.victim impact statement
*Victim impact statements can be presented ___ or ___.written or orally
*Crisis intervention involves...emergency psychological care directed at assisting a victim who is experiencing a crisis
___ allow victims and offenders to meet face to fact and discuss restitution.Reconciliation Mediation Programs
Reconciliation mediation programs are part of the ___ justice movement, encouraging reconciliation. restorative
*Most bills include the following for victim rights...(1) notification of proceedings and status of the defendant; (2) presence at the proceedings; (3) statement at sentencing and restitution from convicted offender; (4) consultation before a case is dismissed or plea bargain is entered; (5) a speedy trial; (6) confidentiality of contact infor
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