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ADJ 107 Chap 1

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blueghost's version from 2017-03-15 10:08

Section

Question Answer
*Criminology involves the fields...sociology, criminal justice, political science, psychology, public police, economics, and some business aspects
Criminology looks at...the effectiveness of punishments, compares various forms of rehabilitation, and determining why an indiv(s) became involved in a criminal act
___ is an essential component of criminologyresearch
Research uses data to...support or disprove criminological theories
*Criminological research includes types:exploration, description, explanation, and application
*Most research in criminology is...descriptive research
Descriptive research... incorporates research knowledge with the issue; describes the problem or topic
Explanatory research...is interested in clarifying "why"
Exploratory research...is used when researchers are not familiar with an issue or there is a lack of preceding research
Applied research...evaluates effectiveness or impact
*___ is the most common type of researchdescriptive research
Criminologists' goals include...design and collection of data; determining actual crime patters; describing criminological theories
*Criminology vs criminal justicecriminology attempts to describe origins, extent, and nature of crime within society; criminal justice includes the study of agencies of social control (ex law enforcement)
*Deviant behaviour...behaviour which is not accepted by cultural norms
Why do criminologists look at deviance?it relates to criminality, but they do not look at the moral or normative justification
Deviance can be (somewhat) left to ___interpretation
Deviance can differ by ____culture
Criminologists must understand the ___ .legality of deviance; no assumptions based on moral perspective
Studying ___ uses statistics to see what types of crime are committed, by whom, who may be victims, and other characteristics of the crime.crime patterns
Other ways of analyzing crime not reported to authorities include...surveys and interviews
Why do criminologists look at crime data?to measure indiv and social factors, extent of crime, and changes in crime rate
*Methods of collecting data include...Uniform Crime Report (UCR), National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) and Self-Report Surveys
*Uniform Crime Report (UCR)most widely sited source of official criminal statistics method
Crimes are cleared in two ways...(1) when at least one person is arrested, charges, and turned over to the court; (2)when an element beyond police control precludes the physical arrest of an offender, such as the offender leaving the country
*___ of all reported index crimes are cleared by arrest each yearslightly more than 20 percent
Why do serious crimes have higher clearance ratesless occur; more manpower is dedicated; media attention; physical evidence
*___ percent of all criminal incidents are reportedless than 40 percent
A major critique of the UCR includes...issues with validity because less than 40 percent of crimes are reported and the UCR uses only reported crimes
*The dark figure of crime is...the amount of crime that is actually committed; the amount of crime not reported to authorities and therefore not in statistical research
National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS)...uses local police dept information and is therefore more detailed than UCR
National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) tries to look at the....dark figure of crime
*According to the NCVS, ___ individuals are victimized each year.about 20 million
The biggest advantage of the NCVS is...the ability to estimate the total number of crimes, and not just those reported to the police.
Self-reporting surveys...ask indivs to describe their recent and lifetime participation in criminal activity, anonymously
*Disadvantages of self-report research include...over and under reporting; exaggeration of criminal activity; failure to recognize criminal behaviour
Crime typologists...emphasize research on certain criminal types and patterns
*A theory is...a set of interconnected statements of propositions that explain how two or more events or factors are related to one another
Theory construction consists of...verifying social truths that can be quantified and measured
The sociology of law is...the study of law and society
___ leads to an increase in the publics' fear of crime.the influence of the media
Criminologist may question the ___ of laws.effectiveness
Three views of crime include...the conflict model, the consensus model, and the interactionist model
*The consensus perspective...believes laws should be endorsed in order to criminalize certain types of behaviour; based on society's morals as a whole
*The conflict perspective...looks at society as a collection of diverse groups who are in constant and continuing conflict; the criminal behaviour is decided by the group in power
*The interactionist perspective...views criminal acts as individual acts based on interpretations of reality
Moral entrepreneur is used by ___ and describes...interactionists; when people of power start moral campaigns to control certain behaviour
*Mala in se are...inherently evil acts; would be considered crime without laws stating it is so
Felony is...a serious offense with imprisonment of over a year
Misdemeanour is...a minor crime with imprisonment less than a year
Laws change based on...cultural and social tolerances towards certain behaviours.
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