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ADJ 100 Chapter 2 Vocabulary

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blueghost's version from 2017-02-06 11:41

Section

Question Answer
anomiecondition in which the individual feels a disconnect from society due to the breakdown or absence of social norms
biology the science of living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, and origin
causationthe relationship in which a change in one measurement or behaviour creates a recognizable change in another measurement or behaviour
choice theory a school of criminology based on belief that individuals have free will to engage in any behaviour, including criminal behaviour
chronic offenderdelinquent or criminal who commits multiple offenses and is considered part of a small group of wrongdoers who are responsible for a majority of the antisocial activity in any given community
classical criminologya school of criminology that holds that wrongdoers act as if they weigh the possible benefits of criminal or delinquent activity against the expected ones of being apprehended
control theory series of theories that assume all individuals have the potential for criminal behaviour, but are restrained by the damage that such actions would do to their relationships with family, friends, and members of the community
correlationthe relationship between two measurements of behaviours that tend to move in the same direction
criminal model of addictionan approach to drug abuse that holds that offenders harm society by their actions to the same extent as other criminals and should face the same punitive sanctions
criminology the scientific study of crime and the causes of criminal behaviour
cultural deviance theory branch of the social structure theory; based on the assumption that members of certain subcultures reject the values of the dominant culture by exhibiting deviant behaviour patterns
decriminalization the removal of criminal penalties associated with a product or act, which then becomes only subject to civil sanctions such as fines and citations
drug abusethe use of drugs that result in physical or psychological problems for the user as well as disruption of personal relationships and employment
geneticsstudy of how certain traits or qualities are transmitted from parents to their offspring
hormonechemical substance produced in tissue and conveyed in the bloodstream that controls certain cellular and body functions such as growth and reproduction
hypothesispossible explanation for an observed occurrence that can be tested by further investigation
labeling theory hypothesis that society creates crime and criminals by labeling certain behaviour and certain people as criminal
learning theory theory that delinquents and criminals must be taught both the practical and emotional skills necessary to participate in illegal activity
legalizationto make a formally illegal product or action lawful
life course criminology the study of crime based on the belief that behavioural patterns developed in childhood can predict delinquent and criminal behaviour later in life
medical model of addictionan approach to drug addiction that treats drug abuse as a mental illness and focuses on treating and rehabilitating offenders rather than punishing them
positivism a school of the social sciences that sees criminal and delinquent behaviour as the result of biological psychological, and social forces
psychoanalytic theory Sigmund Freud; theory that attributes our thoughts and actions to unconscious motives
psychology scientific study, of mental processes and behaviour
social conflict theoriesschool of criminology that views criminal behaviours as the result of class conflict
social disorganization theory the theory that deviant behaviour is more likely in communities where social institutions such as family, schools, and the criminal justice system fail to exert control over the population
social process theoriesschool of criminology that considers criminal behaviour to be the predictable result of a person's interaction with his or her environment
social reality of crimethe theory that criminal laws are designed by those in power to help keep power at the expense of those who do not have power
sociology study of the development and functioning of groups of people who live together in a society
strain theoryassumption that crime is the result of frustration felt by individuals who cannot reach their financial and personal goals through legit means
subculturegroup exhibiting certain values and behaviour patterns that distinguish it from the dominant culture
testosteronethe hormone primarily responsible for the production of sperm and the development of male secondary sex characteristics such as the growth of facial and pubic hair and the change in voice pitch
theory an explanation of happening or circumstance that is based on observation, experimentation, and reasoning
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