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ADJ 100 Chapter 1 Vocabulary

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blueghost's version from 2017-02-02 15:03

Section

Question Answer
assault a threat or attempt to do violence to another person that causes that person to fear immediate physical harm
batterythe act of physically contacting another person that causes that person to fear immediate physical harm
biometricsmethods to identify a person based on his or her unique physical characteristics
burglarythe act of breaking into/entering a structure without permission for the purpose of committing a felony
capital crimea criminal act that makes the offender eligible to receive the death penalty
civil liberties basic rights and freedoms for american citizens guaranteed by the US Constitution (Bill of Rights)
conflict modelcriminal justice model in which the content of criminal law is determined by the groups that hold economic, politic, and social power in the community
consensus modela criminal justice model in which the majority of citizens in the society share the same values and beliefs; criminal acts are acts that conflict with these values and norms and that are deemed harmful
crimean act that violates criminal law and is punishable by criminal sanctions
crime control modelcriminal justice model that places primary emphasis on the right of society to be protected from crime and violent criminals
criminal justice systemthe interlocking network of law enforcement agencies, courts, and corrections institutions designed to enforce criminal law and protect society from criminal behaviour
deviancebehavior that is considered to go against the norms established by society
discretionthe ability of individuals in the criminal justice system to make operational decisions based on personal judgement instead of formal rules or official information
domestic terrorismacts of terrorism that take place on US soil without direct foreign involvement
drugany substance that modifies biological, psychological, or social behaviour; particularly an illegal substance
due process modelcriminal justice model that places primacy on the right of the individual to be protected from the power of the government
ethicsthe moral principles that govern a person's perception of right and wrong
federalisma form of government in which a written constitution provides for division of powers between a central government and several regional governments
formal criminal justice processmodel of the criminal justice process in which participants follow formal rules to create a smoothly functioning disposition of cases from arrest to punishment
gun controlefforts by a government to regulate or control the sale of guns
homeland securitya concerted national effort to prevent terrorist attacks within the US and reduce the country's vulnerability to terrorism
informal criminal justice processa model of criminal justice process that recognizes informal authority exercised by individuals at each step of the criminal justice process
justicequality of fairness that must exist in the processes designed to determine whether individuals are guilty of criminal wrongdoing
larcenythe act of taking property from another person without the use of force with the intent of keeping that property
moralspresent/basis of the consensus model; principles of right and wrong behaviour practiced by individuals or society
murderunlawful killing of one human being by another
organized crimeillegal acts carried out by illegal organizations engaged in the market for illegal goods or services, such as illicit drugs or firearms
psychoactive drugschemicals that affect the brain, causing changes in emotions, perceptions, and behaviour
public order crimebehaviour that has been labeled criminal because it is contrary to shared social norms, values, and customs
recidivismact of committing a new crime after a person has already been punished for a previous one by being convicted and sent to a jail or prison
robberyact of taking property from another person through force, threat of force, or intimidation
sexual assault forced or coerced sexual interaction/intercourse
street ganggroup of people (usually 3+) who share common identity and engage in illegal activities
systemset of interacting parts that achieve a desired result
terrorismthe use or threat of violence to achieve political objectives
victim any person who suffers physical, emotional, or financial harm as the result of a criminal act
white-collar crimenonviolent crimes committed by business entities or individuals to gain a personal or business advantage
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