Additional Final Material

jkluger's version from 2016-12-02 19:08

Local/Regional Anesthesia

Question Answer
What are the advantages of local anesthetic use?Economical with minimal systemic side effects
What is a disadvantage to use of local anesthetics?Requires a cooperative patient
What can you add to prolong the effects of a local anesthetic?Epinephrine
What can you add to increase permeability and spread to local anesthetics?Hyaluronidase
Why would a topical anesthetic be used?Desensitization of superficial layers of cornea/mucus membranes
What must be considered when choosing drugs for intrasynovial anesthesia?Non-irritating drugs and careful sterile technique
What are the 4 types of extravascular infiltration?Linear, Inverted L, Field/Ring, Intratesticular
What is the intravascular block called?Bier block
Why would you use a Bier Block?Digital amputations and deep infections
What is the disadvantage of a bier block?Ischemia and persistent lameness
Why might one use a lingual nerve block?lacerations, ranula, foreign bodies
Which nerve does a maxillary nerve block?Infraorbital nerve
When should you use an infraorbital block?surgery of the upper lip, incisors, or gums
What kind of nerve block should be used when doing surgery on the lower jaw?Mental nerve block
What kind of nerve block should you use if you need to access the lower molars?Mandibular alveolar block
What nerve is blocked in a frontal nerve block?Branch of the ophthalmic nerve
Which nerve block should you use for examining the eye in cases with blepharospasm?Auriculopalpebral block
Which block can be used in enucleation?Peterson block
Where would cornual anesthetize?desensitization of the base of the horn
What are the 2 types of paravertebral nn block?Proximal and Distal
Which nerves are blocked in the proximal block?Dorsal and Ventral roots of T13, L1, L2
Which nerves are blocked in the distal block?Dorsal and Ventral rami of T13, L1, L2
Which is easier to do proximal or distal?Distal


Question Answer
What is euthanasia?The act of inducing humane death in an animal
What are the requirements for euthanasia?Free of stress and pain, rapid loss of consciousness, practical, safe
What is the process of euthanasia?Loss of consciousness, cardiac or respiratory arrest, loss of cerebral function
Which animals can inhalants be used?<7kg
What is a disadvantage to using inhalants?Seizures are common
What are advantages to using CO2?Rapid, cheap, readily available, minimal risk to personnel, no toxic accumulation in body.
What are disadvantages to using CO2?Nasal mucosal irritant, some species may have a stress response, not effective for diggers/divers/neonates
If using chemical injection what must be done with care?Body disposal. Can't be in the food chain, remains risk to other animals eating them.
What are disadvantages to using barbiturates?Needs IV injection, drugs are controlled, may have an excitatory phase, terminal gasp
When can a intrasplenic barbiturate injection be used?If the animal is uncosious/anesthetized and the owner did not want to observe.
What does rapid infusion of KCl cause?Cardiac arrest
Can KCl be used on conscious animals for euthanasia?No. not FDA approved.
What kind of drugs are in T61?Anesthetic, muscle relaxant, and a local anesthetic
What are disadvantages to T61 use?IV only, controlled, slow injection necessary, trained personnel
What should be considered when determining a euthanasia method?Presence of owners, species and size of animal, personnel, skills and equipment
Most common euthanasia protocol for dogs?Acepromazine, ketamine, pentobarbital
Most common euthanasia protocol for cats?Ketamine, pentobarbital
Most common euthanasia protocol for horses?Xylazine, Ketamine-diazepam, T61/Pentobarbital