AD Exam #2

xicufaza's version from 2016-03-11 15:26


Question Answer
Basic cells of the CNSneurons, dendrites, and axons
myelin sheath and its purposea layer of fat cells which increase the speed and efficiency of information processing in the nervous system, helps a person walk fluidly (MS)
role of amygdalaemotions
role of pre-frontal cortexreasoning, decision making, and self-control
amygdala and prefrontal cortex combinedadolescents are capable of showing strong emotions, but prefrontal cortex hasn't developed to the point where they can control them, amygdala develops more quickly than the prefrontal cortex: "what were you thinking?!"
define intelligencethe ability to solve problems and to adapt and learn from everyday experiences
Gardener's different types of intelligenceverbal, mathematical, spatial, Bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist (VMS-BMII-N)
Goleman emotional intelligenceperceive and express emotions accurately, use feelings to facilitate thought, manage emotions
criticisms of IQ testsnot the ultimate human value, does not show competence in practical skills, relationship skills, and their moral values, not a fixed measure of potential, can lead to high expectations
what is an intelligence quotient, what do scores suggest?a person's mental age divided by chronological age multiplied by 100, mental age above chronological age=100 IQ, mental age below chronological age=less than 100 IQ
Piaget's stages of cognitive developmentSensorimotor, pre-operational, Concrete operational, and formal operations (sensor, pre, concrete, formal)
Vygotsky's theory of cognitive developmentlearn best though interaction and cooperative activities
difference between what adolescents can do independently and then with assistanceZPD, tasks that are too difficult to do alone, but can be mastered with guidance
why do adolescents take risks?amygdala develops faster than the prefrontal cortex
what is self-understanding and its dimensionsindividual's cognitive representation of the self, based on the various roles and memberships that define an adolescent, but not the whole identity
what is self-concept?the domain-specific evaluations of the self, ex: academic, athletic, physical apperance
what is self-esteem, how to increase?global evaluative dimension of the self (self-worth, self-image), increase: family time, express affection, concern about problems, harmony in home, organized help when they need it, setting clear and fair rules, freedom within limits
emotion closely connected to what?pubertal and hormonal change, environmental experiences
temperament related to personality developmentold classifications: easy child (positive mood, established routines, adapts easily), difficult (negative, slow to adapt to new experiences), slow-to-warm up (low activity level, low intensity of mood) new classifications: positive affect and approach (extravert/introvert), negative affectivity (easily distressed, may cry, introvert), effortful control (ability to regulate emotions)
biological influence of sex and genderpubertal change and sexuality, Freud and Erikson (anatomy is destiny), evolutionary psychology and gender (explains sexual attitudes and behaviors)
Social influences of sex and genderparental influences, siblings, peers, school and teachers, mass media influences (PSP-SM)
what influences gender development cognitive influences (the way we think and act as male and females), evolution and heredity, gender-stereotyping
expectations for gender rolesmales: independent, aggressive, and power-oriented; females: warm and sensitive, emotional
androgenyhigh degree of feminine and masculine characteristics in the same person, more mentally healthy
typical parent behaviors raising females and malesparents give more independence for boys, different academic expectations, interact differently
compare learning issues for males and femalesdifference in math are nonexistent, girls outperform males in writing and reading skills
sexism as it relates to gender issuessexism may limit women in their confidence in their abilities
first role models of genderparents
outcomes of Gilligan's reattach with women?girls come to a critical juncture in their development, stages filed by sense of self rather than cognitive devleopment
Pollack's boy codeset of expectations from outdated stereotypes, boys cannot show feelings, must act tough
rapport talk v. report talkrapport- language of conversation, connections, relationships; report- gives information
mass media impact developmentattractive girls shown as airheads, MTV reinforces women as sexual objects, early adolescence may be a period of heightened sensitivity to televised messages
social cognitive theory gender development influenced by observation of others
what is sexual identity and the factors related to itinvolves learning how to manage sexual feelings, developing new forms of intimacy, involves more than just sexual behavior, sexual identity emerges from physical, social, and cultural factors
common STI's and symptoms, how are they transmitted?HIV/AIDS (sexual contact, sharing needles/blood, destroys immune system), Genital herpes (transmitted through cold sores, itching and tingling, painful sores), Genital warts (caused by HPV, symptoms may not show, warts on pubic area), Gonorrhea (mucous membranes, spread membranes, burning discharge), Syphilis (genital contact/oral, skin rash and lasts several years, REALLY bad), and Chlamydia (sexual contact, pelvic pain and burning discharge)
Sexual scriptsstereotyped pattern of role prescriptions of how individuals should behave sexually
why engage in oral sex?negates risk of pregnancy, not risk free because it can cause STI's, feel good about themselves, relationship improves
who uses contraceptioncontraceptives prevents pregnancy, birth control prevents birth, contraceptive use is more consistent as adolescents get older
sexual education downfallsmay not be effective because sexuality to normal and may make adolescents think expressing their sexuality is bad
stages of the development of homosexual identityrecognize that they are gay or lesbian in mid-to-late adolescence