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Chapter 1

Question Answer Column 3
LANLocal Area Networkinterconnects network components within a local area
WANWide Area Networkinterconnects network components that are geographically separated
CANCampus Area Networkinterconnects building-centric LANs
MANMetropolitan Area Networkinterconnects locations scattered throughout a metropolitan area
PANPersonal Area Networka network whose scale is even smaller than a LAN
VoIPVoice over IP
NICNetwork Interface Card
MACMedia Access Control
IPInternet Protocol
MPLSMultiprotocol Label Switching
IEEEInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineersinternationally recognized standards body
ATMAsynchronous Transfer Mode
MAUMedia Access Unita device to attach multiple network stations in a star topology as a token ring network
FDDIFiber Distributed Data Interfacea set of ANSI and ISO standards for data transmission on fiber optic lines in a local area network (LAN) that can extend in range up to 200 km (124 miles)
UTPUnshielded Twisted Pairthe most common kind of copper telephone wiring

Chapter 2

Question Answer Column 3
ISOInternational Organization for Standardizationan international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations
OSIOpen Systems Interconnectionan effort to standardize computer networking that was started in 1977 by the International Organization for Standardization
PDUProtocol Data Unita group of information added or removed by a layer of the OSI model
TIATelecommunications Industry Associationan offshoot of the Electronic Industries Alliance
EIAElectronic Industries Alliancewas a standards and trade organization composed as an alliance of trade associations for electronics manufacturers in the United States
FDMFrequency-Division MultiplexingEach signal is transmitted as a unique range of frequencies within the bandwidth of the channel as a whole, enabling several signals to be transmitted simultaneously.
TDMTime-Division MultiplexingEach signal is sent as a series of pulses or packets, which are interleaved with those of the other signal or signals and transmitted as a continuous stream.
StatTDMStatistical Time-Division Multiplexinga technique that allows the number of users to be multiplexed over the channel more than the channel can afford
DLCData Link Controlthe service provided by the data link layer
MACMedia Access Controla unique identifier assigned to network interfaces for communications at the data link layer of a network segment
LLCLogical Link Controlhandles error control, flow control, framing, and MAC-sublayer addressing
TCPTransmission Control ProtocolA connection-oriented transport protocol. Connection-oriented transport protocols provide reliable transport, in that if a segment is dropped, the sender can detect that drop and retransmit that dropped segment.
UDPUser Datagram ProtocolA connectionless transport protocol. Connectionless transport protocols provide unreliable transport, in that if a segment is dropped, the sender is unaware of the drop, and no retransmission occurs.
ICMPInternet Control Message Protocolused by network devices, like routers, to send error messages indicating, for example, that a requested service is not available or that a host or router could not be reached
APIApplication Programming Interfacea system of tools and resources in an operating system, enabling developers to create software applications
EBCDICExtended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Codean eight-bit character encoding used mainly on IBM mainframe and IBM midrange computer operating systems
ASCIIAmerican Standard Code for Information Interchangethe most common format for text files in computers and on the Internet. each alphabetic, numeric, or special character is represented with a 7-bit binary number (a string of seven 0s or 1s).
NCPNetwork Control Protocola protocol used on ARPANET (the predecessor to the Internet), and it provided features similar to (although not as robust) those provided by the TCP/IP suite of protocols on the Internet
ARPANETAdvanced Research Projects Agency Network an early packet switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP
TTLTime To Livea mechanism that limits the lifespan or lifetime of data in a computer or network
XMLExtensible Markup Languagea text-based format used to share data on the World Wide Web, intranets, and elsewhere
CRCCyclic Redundancy CheckA mathematical algorithm that is executed on a data string by both the sender and the receiver of the data string. If the calculated values match, the receiver can conclude that the data string was not corrupted during transmission.

Chapter 3

Question Answer Column 3
MDIMedia Dependent Interfacethe component of the media attachment unit that provides the physical and electrical connection to the cabling medium which is used to connect network devices (hubs and switches) with other hubs and switches without the use of a crossover cable or null modem
MDIXMedia Dependent Interface Crossovera version of MDI that enables connection between like devices
PVCPolyvinyl Chloridethe world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene
FEPFluorinated Ethylene Polymer
EMIElectromagnetic Interferencea disturbance generated by an external source that affects an electrical circuit by electromagnetic induction, electrostatic coupling, or conduction
MMFMultimode Fibera type of optical fiber mostly used for communication over short distances, such as within a building or on a campus
SMFSingle Mode Fiberan optical fiber designed to carry light only directly down the fiber - the transverse mode
IDFIntermediate Distribution Framea distribution frame in a central office or customer premises, which cross-connects the user cable media to individual user line circuits and may serve as a distribution point for multipair cables
MDFMain Distribution Framea signal distribution frame for connecting equipment (inside plant) to cables and subscriber carrier equipment (outside plant)
CDFCombined Distribution Framea distribution frame that combines the functions of main and intermediate distribution frames and contains both vertical and horizontal terminating blocks
ASICApplication Specific Integrated Circuitan integrated circuit (IC) customized for a particular use, rather than intended for general-purpose use
VPNVirtual Private Networksecure connections through an untrusted network, such as the Internet
FQDNFully Qualified Domain Namethe complete domain name for a specific computer, or host, on the Internet
CNAMECanonical Name recorda type of resource record in the Domain Name System (DNS) used to specify that a domain name is an alias for another domain, which is the "canonical" domain
PTRPointer Recordpoints to a canonical name
SOAStart of Authority recordprovides authoritative information about a DNS zone, such as e-mail contact information for the zone's administrator, the zone's primary name server, and various refresh timers
DDNSDynamic Domain Name Systema method of automatically updating a name server in the Domain Name System (DNS), often in real time
EDNSExtension Mechanisms for DNSa specification for expanding the size of several parameters of the Domain Name System (DNS) protocol which had size restrictions that the Internet engineering community deemed too limited for increasing functionality of the protocol
iSCSIInternet Small Computer System Interfaceworks on top of the Transport Control Protocol (TCP) and allows the SCSI command to be sent end-to-end over local-area networks (LANs), wide-area networks (WANs) or the Internet
SCSISmall Computer System Interfacea set of parallel interface standards developed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) for attaching printers, disk drives, scanners and other peripherals to computers
SANStorage Area Networkan architecture to attach remote computer storage devices to servers
PBXPrivate Branch Exchangea privately owned telephone system
SIPSession Initiation Protocola signaling, setup and management protocol used with voice and video sessions over IP networks
RTPReal-time Transport Protocola protocol that carries voice (and interactive video)
UCUnified Communicationsa marketing buzzword describing the integration of real-time enterprise communication services with non-real-time communication services
DNSDomain Name SystemPerforms the task of taking a domain name and resolving that name into a corresponding IP address

Chapter 4

Question Answer Column 3
CSMA/CDCarrier Sense Multiple Access Collision Detecta media access control method used most notably in early Ethernet technology for local area networking
CSMA/CACarrier Sense Multiple Access Collision Avoidancea network multiple access method in which carrier sensing is used, but nodes attempt to avoid collisions by transmitting only when the channel is sensed to be "idle"
GBICGigabit Interface Convertera transceiver that converts electric currents (digital highs and lows) to optical signals, and optical signals to digital electric currents
VLANVirtual Local Area Networkany broadcast domain that is partitioned and isolated in a computer network at the data link layer (OSI layer 2)
VTPVLAN Trunking Protocolallows a VLAN created on one switch to be propagated to other switches in a group of switches
IEEE 802.3EthernetEthernet
BASEBasebandWhereas baseband uses digital signaling, broadband uses analog signals in the form of optical or electromagnetic waves over multiple transmission frequencies.
SFPSmall Form-factor Pluggablea compact, hot-pluggable transceiver used for both telecommunication and data communications applications
dot1qIEEE 802.1Qan IEEE open standard, which be used to create trunk connection between switches of different vendors
SPBShortest Path Bridginga computer networking technology intended to simplify the creation and configuration of networks, while enabling multipath routing
BIDBridge IDEvery switch has an identity when they are part of a network.
BPDUBridge Protocol Data Unita data message transmitted across a local area network to detect loops in network topologies
PVSTPer-VLAN Spanning Treemaintains a spanning tree instance for each VLAN configured in the network
LACPLink Aggregation Control Protocolsupports automatic configuration and prevents an individual link from becoming a single point of failure
LAGLink Aggregation GroupA group of interfaces that makes up an EtherChannel bundle
PoEPower over Ethernetdescribes any of several standardized or ad-hoc systems which pass electric power along with data on twisted pair Ethernet cabling
NACNetwork Admission Controlan approach to computer security that attempts to unify endpoint security technology (such as antivirus, host intrusion prevention, and vulnerability assessment), user or system authentication and network security enforcement
SSHSecure Shella cryptographic network protocol for operating network services securely over an unsecured network
OOBOut of Band managementwhen the management traffic is kept on a separate network than the user traffic
HSRPHot Standby Router Protocola routing protocol that provides backup to a router in the event of failure
GLBPGateway Load Balancing Protocola Cisco proprietary protocol that attempts to overcome the limitations of existing redundant router protocols by adding basic load balancing functionality
VRRPVirtual Router Redundancy Protocolprovides for automatic assignment of available Internet Protocol (IP) routers to participating hosts
CARPCommon Address Redundancy Protocolallows multiple hosts on the same local area network to share a set of IP addresses
QoSQuality of Servicecan forward traffic based on the traffic's priority markings

Chapter 5

Question Answer Column 3
IPXInternetwork Packet Exchangea networking protocol from Novell that interconnects networks that use Novell's NetWare clients and servers
ICANNInternet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbersassigns a block of IP addresses to a regional Internet registry
ARINAmerican Registry for Internet Numbersacts as an Internet registry for North America
InterNICInternet Network Information Centerthe predecessor to ICANN (until September 18, 1998)
APIPAAutomatic Private IP AddressingAddresses in the range are only usable on their local subnet and are dynamically assigned to network hosts
UNCUniversal Naming Conventiona way to identify a shared file in a computer without having to specify (or know) the storage device it is on
BOOTPBootstrap Protocola computer networking protocol used in Internet Protocol networks to automatically assign an IP address to network devices from a configuration server
ZeroconfZero Configurationa set of technologies that automatically creates a usable computer network based on the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) when computers or network peripherals are interconnected
SLPService Location Protocola service discovery protocol that allows computers and other devices to find services in a local area network without prior configuration
SSDPSimple Service Discovery Protocolthe basis of the discovery protocol of Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) and is intended for use in residential or small office environments
DNS-SDDNS-based Service Discoverya way of using standard DNS programming interfaces, servers, and packet formats to browse the network for services
mDNSMulticast Domain Name Servicea technology that can resolve computer names to their corresponding IP address on a local subnet, without the aid of a DNS server or a WINS server
CIDRClassless Interdomain Routingshortens a classful subnet mask by removing 1s from the classful mask
NDPNeighbor Discovery Protocol