Acids And Bases

Updated 2009-02-17 16:44

Acids and Bases

SoluteWhat gets dissolved in a solution
SolventThe predominant component of a solution;
other things get dissolved in it
Hydration NumberThe number of water molecules associated with a particular ion
Strong ElectrolyteTheir solutions conduct electricity well
Weak ElectrolyteTheir solutions conduct electricity poorly
NonelectrolyteTheir solutions conduct no electricity
Strong ElectrolyteDissociates completely in aqueous solution
Strong ElectrolyteSoluble salts, strong acids, and strong bases
Weak ElectrolytePartially dissociates in aqueous solution
Weak ElectrolyteWeak acids, weak bases
Arrhenius Acid Proton (H+) Producer
Arrhenius BaseOH- Producer
Bronsted-Lowry AcidProton (H+) Donor
Bronsted-Lowry BaseProton (H+) Acceptor
Lewis Acidelectron pair acceptor
Lewis Baseelectron pair donor
AmphotericCan act as acid or base


Complete Ionic EquationAll strong electrolytes are represented as ions
Net Ionic EquationOnly lists solution components that react
Spectator IonsNot included in Net Ionic Equations
Stoichiometric Point = Equivalence PointThe point in a titration when enough titrant has been added to react exactly with the substance being determined
IndicatorA chemical that changes color at the equivalence point of a titration
Buffer SolutionContains weak acid or weak base
Buffer SolutionResists pH changes when OH- or H+ are added
Strong AcidsHCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, HClO4, H2SO4
Strong BasesNaOH, KOH, Ca(OH)2
Weak Monoprotic AcidsHSO4-, HClO2, HC2H2ClO2, HF, HNO2, HC2H3O2,
[Al(H2O)6]3+, HOCl, HCN, NH4+, HOC6H5
Weak Polyprotic AcidsH3PO4, H3AsO4, H2CO3, H2SO3, H2S, H2C2O4, H2C6H6O6
Weak BasesNH3, CH3NH2, C2H5NH2, C6H5NH2, C5H5N
Conjugate AcidWhat results when a base gains a proton
Conjugate BaseWhat remains of an acid after H+ is lost
Conjugate AcidBH+ for the base B
Conjugate BaseA- for the acid HA


Oxidation/ReductionElectron Transfer
Redox ReactionElectron Transfer
OxidationAn increase in oxidation state or number
OxidationA loss of electrons
ReductionA decrease in oxidation state or number
ReductionA gain of electrons
Oxidizing AgentIt gets reduced
Oxidizing AgentElectron acceptor
Reducing AgentElectron donor
Reducing AgentIt gets oxidized


Kw10-14=[H+][OH-]=[H3O+][OH-]=Ka x Kb
Ka[H3O+][A-]/[HA] = [H+][A-]/[HA]
KaLarge for strong acids, small for weak acids
Kb Large for strong bases, small for weak bases
Henderson-Hasselbalch EquationpH=pKa+log([A-]/[HA])=pKa+log([base]/[acid])
Henderson-Hasselbalch EquationpOH=pKb+log([BH+]/[B])=pKb+log([acid]/[base])


pH of aqueous solution of KCl, NaCl, NaNO3, or KNO3 salt7 (neutral)
pH of aqueous solutions of salts with
cations of strong bases and
anions of strong acids
7 (neutral)
pH of aqueous solutions of salts with
cations of strong bases and
anions of weak acids
>7 (basic)
pH of aqueous solution of NaC2H3O2, NaF, or KCN salt>7 (basic)
pH of aqueous solutions of salts with
cations of weak bases and
anions of strong acids
<7 (acidic)
pH of aqueous solutions of salts with
anions of strong acids and
cations of highly charged metal ions that form
hydrated ion complexes with H2O
<7 (acidic)
pH of aqueous solutions of salts with
cations of weak bases and
anions of weak acids
Ka > Kb gives acidic (<7),
Ka = Kb gives neutral (=7),
Ka < Kb gives basic (>7)
pH of aqueous solution of NH4Cl, NH4NO3,
FeCl3, Al(NO3)3, or AlCl3
<7 (acidic)

Acid Names

Anions ending in -ate generally give acids ending in -ic.

Mnemonic: "I ate the icky one".
Acid NameChemical Formula
Nitric AcidHNO3
Nitrous AcidHNO2
Sulfuric AcidH2SO4
Sulfurous AcidH2SO3
Hydrosulfuric AcidH2S
Perchloric AcidHClO4
Chloric AcidHClO3
Chlorous AcidHClO2
Hypochlorous AcidHClO
Hydrochloric Acid HCl
Acetic AcidHC2H3O2
Hydrocyanic AcidHCN
Phosphoric AcidH3PO4

Solubilities of Salts in Water (p.114)

SaltIs it soluble in water?
Most nitrate (NO3-) saltsyes
Most salts of Na+, K+, NH4+yes
Most chloride (Cl-) saltsyes
AgCl, PbCl2, Hg2Cl2no
Most sulfate (SO42-) saltsyes
BaSO4, PbSO4, CaSO4no
Most hydroxide (OH-) saltsslightly
NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH)2yes
Most sulfide (S2-) saltsslightly
Most carbonate (CO32-) saltsslightly
Most phosphate (PO43-) saltsslightly


Reference: "Chemistry" by Steven S. Zumdahl, D.C. Heath and Company, 1986