Acid Base Balance Basics

olanjones's version from 2016-02-04 15:50

Section 1

Question Answer
Acidosis (pH <7.35) symptomsDepresses CNS: change in attitude, generalized weakness, deranged CNS function. Higher H+=Increased sleepiness
Alkalosis (pH >7.45) symptomsOverexcites CNS & PNS: numbness, lightheadedness, nervousness, tetany.
What is the normal pH range, what is the absolute range of pH for a human?Normal range = 7.35-7.45, Absolute range = 6.8-8.0 (death occurs outside of these)
What is the normal range for pCO2?35-45
What is the normal range for HCO3?22-26
What is the normal range for pO2?80-100
What is the normal range for O2 Saturation?95-100%

Section 2

Question Answer
How does the bicarbonate buffer (EC) work?works to dissociate strong acid/base (HCl or NaOH) to form weaker acid/base (H2CO3 or NaHCO3). 20:1 ratio of HCO3-:H2CO3
How does the phosphate buffer (IC) work?works to dissociate strong acid/base (H+ or OH-) to form weaker acid/base (H2PO4- or H2PO4 2-)
How do proteins work as buffers?because they contain both a carboxyl group (gives up H+) and and amino group (accepts H+) they can buffer either acid or base. Includes Hgb.
What is respiratory acidosis?An excess of CO2. Can be caused by emphysema, respiratory depression, ARDS, pulmonary edema
What is respiratory alkalosis?A deficit of CO2 (hypocapnia). MOST COMMON ACID/BASE IMBALANCE. Caused by hyperventilation, anxiety, stress, O2 deficiency at high altitudes
What is metabolic acidosis?A deficit of HCO3-. Can be caused by diarrhea, increased acid production (lactic or ketoacidosis), renal failure to excrete H+
What is metabolic alkalosis?An excess of HCO3-. Can be caused by vomiting, increased use of alkaline drugs or antacids

Section 3

Question Answer
Respiratory acidosis manifestationsbreathlessness, lethargy, disorientation, tremors, convulsions, death
Respiratory alkalosis manifestationsdizziness, panic, lightheadedness, tetany, numbness/tingling in fingers
Metabolic acidosis manifestationsneurological symptoms: HA, lethargy, N&V, diarrhea, coma, death
Metabolic alkalosis manifestationsdecreased respiration, increased reflexes, tetany, atrial tachycardia, loss of electrolytes

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