Accessory digestive organs

tigrebright's version from 2015-10-19 15:41

Section 1

Question Answer
liverlargest organ in the body; it has several functions related to removing toxins from the blood and turning food into fuel and nutrients
hepaticpertaining to the liver
glucoseblood sugar; excess is removed by the liver
glycogenform of starch stored in the liver
bilirubinpigment excreted into the digestive fluid called bile; this gives it a yellow to green color
bilea digestive juice secreted by the liver that is necessary for the digestion of fat; it travels from the liver to the gall bladder where it is stored
biliary treeprovides the channels through which bile is transported from the liver to the small intestine
biliarypertaining to bile
common hepatic ductthe trunk of the biliary tree
cystic ductwhere bile enters and exits the gall bladder
common bile ductwhere the cystic duct leaving the gall bladder rejoins the hepatic duct
pancreatic ducttogether with the common bile duct it enters the duodenum of the small intestine
gall bladdera pear-shaped organ about the size of an egg located under the liver; it stores and concentrates bile for later use
pancreassoft, 6" long oblong gland located behind the stomach;produces and secretes pancreatic juices
pancreatic juicesaid in digestion and contain digestive enzymes and sodium bicarbonate to help neutralize stomach acids

Section 2

Question Answer
digestionthe process by which complex foods are broken down into nutrients in a form the body can use
digestive enzymesresponsible for the chemical changes that break foods down into simpler forms of nutrients
nutrienta substance, usually from food, that is necessary for normal functioning of the body
metabolismall the processes involved in the body's use of nutreints
anabolismthe building up of body cells and substances from nutrients
catabolismthe breaking down of body cells or substances; releasing energy and carbon dioxide
absorptionthe process by which completely digested nutrients are transported to the cells throughout the body
villifinger-like projections lining the small intestine; contain blood vessels and lacteals
lactealsspecialized structures of the lymphatic system;absorb fats and fat-soluble vitamins that cannot be transported directly by the bloodstream
masticationaka chewing; breaks food down into smaller pieces, mixes it with saliva, and prepares it to be swallowed
bolusa mass of food that has been chewed and is ready to be swallowed
peristalsisa series of wave-like contractions of the smooth muscles in single direction that moves the food forward into the digestive system
chymethe semifluid mass of partially digested good that passes out of the stomach, through the pyloric sphincter, into the small intestine
emulsificationchyme is mixed pancreatic juice and bile, which breaks apart large fat globules so enzymes can digest the fats
fecesaka solid body waste;expelled through the rectum and anus
defecationthe evacuation of emptying of the large intestine
borborygmusthe rumbling noise caused by the movement of gas in the intestine
flatulencethe passage of gas out of the body through the rectum

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