Absolutism and relativism

archiebw's version from 2016-05-25 17:08


Question Answer
What is Aquinas' lame absolutist quote?“Follow the good and avoid the evil” was said by who?
What position did Plato take?Ethical absolutism was a position taken by which Greek philosopher?
What did a beautiful painting instrically have participating in it, according to Plato?The form of beauty.
Which Pre-Socratic philosopher limited discussion of 'good' to one question, and what was it?Protagoras and ‘What’s good for you?’
What, to Plato, is the highest form of reality?To Plato, Goodness or the Form of the Good is the highest what?
Name one particular which separates the Sun from the Form of the Good.The former is a source of growth and light, whereas the latter is a source of reality and truth.
From which work does the famous story exploring cultural relativism and involving two Greek cultures come, and when was it written?Herodotus's 'Histories', and the 450s BCE.
What is a modern example of Protagoras's position on truth?A man says he doesn't like spaghetti. Another man says he does. Both statements are true. Of what is this a modern example?
In which book were Aristotle's ethical positions outlined?'Nicomachean Ethics'.
What was Aristotle's rule-of-thumb approach to morality?That virtue is the mean between two extremes.


Question Answer
What have modern anthropologists allegedly concluded morality to mean?'Socially approved habits'.
How would cultural relativism suit modern perspectives?It celebrates a variety of beliefs and cultures.
What is a sinister implication of cultural relativism involving Islamic countries?There should be no reasonable objection from a woman told to cover all her skin in a strict Islamic country.
In addition to different moralities in the world, to what is cultural relativism lenient?Different moralities of the past.
Why does cultural relativism goes against the nature of philosophy?It can lead to the assertion ‘well, that’s your point of view, but it’s not mine’.
In which epoch was there widespread moral certainty in Greece, which notable person belonged here, and which theory picked this attitude up?8th Century BCE, Homer, and Virtue Ethics.
When did moral certainty start to decline in Greece, and to what two factors does Alasdair MacIntyre point?6th Century BCE, and the discovery of other civilisations and city states expanding, making societal roles less clear.
Which of the three of Socrates (as depicted in Plato's dialogues), Plato and Aristotle opposed moral absolutism?None of them.
Which group of people notably argued for moral relativity in Greece, who was one of them, and what was his famous quote?The Sophists, Protagoras and "Man is the measure of all things."


Question Answer
What is 'the diversity thesis'?The idea that because of diversity across cultures there is not one objective morality.
What is 'the dependency thesis'?The idea we are all a product of our own culture so we can't judge.
Where does Jesus support relativism, and what is the exact quotation?Mark 2, and "The Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath."


Question Answer
What did J.L. Mackie fundamentally opine on the topic, and from which book is this?‘There are no objective values' was said by which philosopher in his book 'Ethics: Inventing Right and Wrong'?
How does J.L. Mackie agree with Plato, and how does he differ?Who agrees with Plato that if moral rules existed they would have to be strange entities, completely different from other things, but finds this unconvincing?
In what context in one of Plato's works is the selective regarding of opinions advised, and how is it analogised?Socrates advises Crito this in one of Plato's dialogues, and he says an athlete only listens to his trainer about his performance.
What could be said to be absolutist about cultural relativism?That morality is defined by what is approved by a culture.
What could be an example of an effective manifestation of ethical absolutism in the real world?The United Nations Declaration of Human Rights.
Which two other ethical theories have relativistic aspects?Utilitarianism and proportionalism.
What is an example of a Christian relativistic theory?Situation Ethics.


Question Answer
What is a moral objectivist?A moral absolutist who believes in 'graded absolutism'.
What is 'graded absolutism'?The belief in a hierarchy of absolutes.
What is a typical hierarchy of absolutes?Duty to God before Duty to Others before Duty to Property.
Which historical woman would moral objectivists excuse for her actions?Corrie Ten Boom.


Question Answer
What are the two absolutist theories with which are dealt in the syllabus?Natural Law and Kantian Ethics.
Moral truths vary according to which four factors mentioned by the mark scheme?Culture, time, place and religion.
What is a possible strength of relativism?Human situations vary so much it is not possible to have one moral rule that will always fit everyone.
For the purpose of the exam, are any ethical theories completely relativist?No.


Question Answer
What is Plato's criticism of Protagoras called, and of what does it consist?The peritrope, and that if Protagoras believes that everyone's opinion is correct, he must accept Plato's belief that his whole doctrine is false is correct.
Of what could relativism could be said to be guilty, and what is a concise way of putting this?It wants for itself objectivity but denies this exists, and "self-referential inconsistency."
Why might it be suggested relativist Christians exist?Because to apply modern questions such as of feminism or communism to Scripture is anachronistic, and so Christians are compelled to just interpret the Bible the best they can.



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