Abnormal Psych

octopirecipes's version from 2015-12-06 20:22


Question Answer
Neurodevelopmental DisordersDiagnosed first in infancy, childhood, or adolescence.
Neurodevelipment Disoders examplesADHD, Specific learning disorder, ASD, ID, Communication and Motor Disorders.
developmental psychopathologystudy of how disorders arise and change with time, disruption of early skills can affect later development, some disorders more likely to emerge at certain periods.
tourettes disorderconsists of tics of body types, sometimes vocal.
ticswhen body parts move repeatedly, quickly, suddenly, and uncontrolably. Can be stopped voluntarily for brief periods.


Question Answer
ADHDinattention, over activity, impulsivity. Impaired behavior, cognitice, social academic problems.
3 subtypes of ADHDprimarily inattentive, hyperactive, and a conbinations of two.
ADHD prevalanceaprox. 5% of school aged children. Most commonly diagnosed in US. 3-9% of general population.
ADHD courseappears around age 3-4. half of children had difficulties as adults. (divorce, lower education, substance use) Impulsivity decreases but inattentions remains. Most common in boys, girls less likely to be disruptive > less likely diagnosed.
ADHD Biologicalgenetics are 70-80% of the risk. DATI- Dopamine transporters gene implication. Norepinephrine, Gaba and Serotonic also implicated.
ADHD Neurobiologicalsmaller brain volume (3-4% smaller), reduced activity in frotal cortex and basal ganglia - reduced inhibitory control. Reduction in white matter, connections b/w neurons.
ADHD Toxinsfood additives (dyes,pesticides.) may play a very small roles in hyperactive/impulsive behaviors. Maternal smoking during pragnancy increases risk.
ADHD Psychosocialoften viewed nagtively by others, negative feedback from peers and adults. peer rejections results in social isolations and low self esteem.
ADHD Biological Treatmentstimulant medications 4 million children on (Ritalin, Dexedrine, Adderal.)
Affect of ADHD medicationimprove compliance, decrease negative behaviors, benefits do no last is discountinued.
ADHD behavioral treatmentreinforcement programs, token economics, increase good behavior/decrease bad behavior. (Conbination of behavioral+biological treatment reccomended)
ADHA criticismover diagnosed, acting out vs ADHD, medicating chilhood.


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Specific Learning Diorders (SLD)academic problems in reading/math/writing, low performance, problems persist for 6 months despite intervention.
SLD typesimpairment in reading (word reading accuracy, reading rate/fluency(dislexia), reading comprehension.) impairment in writting (spelling accuracy, clarity/organication of writing.) Impairment in math (number sense, memorization, accurate fluent calculation,accurate math resoning.)
SLD prevalance6.5 millions children in US. Highest in wealthier regions but children with low SES more likely to have difficulties. Reading impairment more comming 4-10% of gen population.
SLD Statsstudents with SLD tend to drop out, be un employed, have suicidal thoughs, negative school experiences.
SLD causesrun in families, but difficulties are not inherited, decreased fuctioning in neurological areas responsible, contributions are unclear.
SLD treatmentintense behavioral education interventions ,biological interventions like Ritalin for those who also have ADHD.


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ASDproblems in languages, socialization, and cognition. main areas-communications/social interation 25% don't acquire effective speech. Restrictive repetitive patterns of behaviors/interests/activities
pervasiveproblems span many life areas
Other diorders undel pervasice developmentaly disordersautism, aspergers, childhood disintegrative disorder, rett syndrome (mostly females)
ASD levelslevel 1-requiring support level 2-requiring substrantial support level 3-requiring very substantial support
social/communication/interaction impairmentfailure to develop peer relationships, intiating and maintaining relationships, understanding nonverbal communication, lack appropriate expression/tone, lack of social reciprocity, deficit in joint attention.
joint attentiongability to communicate interest in an external stimulus and another person at the same time
restrictive/repetitive behaviors and interestsprefer status quo, sameness, order, routines. Stereotyped/ritualistic behavior (spinning,flapping,rocking) Intense circumscribed interest in specific subjects which make it difficult to relate to others.
ASD prevalance1 in 50 children, most commomly diagnosed in males, 38% show intellectual disabilities, occurs worldwide.
ASD psych/social dimensionshistorcally blamed on failed parenting, cold aloof parents, high SE stattus, no longer supporter. Though to be lack of self awareness but not true.
ASD biological dimensionssignificant genetic component, 20% of having a child with autism, numerous genes and chromosome involved. Oxytocin receptor genes (bonding and social memory) Older parents associated with increased risk.
ASD neurobiologyamygdala -larger at birth ( leads to high anxiety and fear), elevated cortisol, neuronal damage (results in high stress, which may affect procesing of scoail situations.) Oxytocin (lower levels in ASD patients)
savant syndromeautistic savant refers to individuals with autism who have an exceptional skill not exhibited by most persons. "splinter" skill may exist in the context of more global cogitive compromise, 10% of autistic community have savant abilities compared to the 1% in the non-autistic community.
ASD Psychosocial treatmentbehavioral approaches (skill building, reduce bad behaviors, communication and language training, increase socialization, naturalistic teaching strats.) Early intervention is critical may normalize the functioning of the developing brain.
ASD biological treatmentmedican intervention has had little positive impact on core dysfuntion, drugs decrease agitation (tranquilizers, SSRIs) indicators of good prognosis (high IS, good language ability)
ASD integrated treatmentsmltidimensional, comprehensisve focus. (special ed in schools, focussion on communation and social interaction, judicious uder of medication in some cases, families given support too,when older focus on integrating in community and making more independent.


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Intellectual disability (IDD)below average intellectual and adaptive functioning, first evident in childhood, range of impairment varies greatly, previously called mental retadation, IQ- 70-75
Mind IQ50 to 55 to 70
Moderate IQ35-40 to 50-55
Severe IQ20-25 to 35-40
Profound IQbelow 20-25
difficulties in three domainsconception (laguage,reasoning,knowledge,memory.), Social (making and keeping friends.) Practical ((self care, job responsibilities.) also based on assistance require.
IDD prevalance2% of general population, (IQ 50-70 MILD), Chronic, High variable individual prognosis. Independerce is possible when given appropriate resources.
IDD causesenviromental, (neglect), prenatal (exposure to toxins.) Perinatal (problems during delivery) post natal (head injury) fetal alcohol syndrome, expose to illnesses in womb, lack of oxygen during birth, malnutrition, head injuries, chidhood abuse.
IDD genetic causeschromosomal disorders (eg Down Syndrome) Multiple genetic mutations, single genes can be responsible, dominant gines less often responsible for ID, Recessive genes often reponsible. Most cases of ID have no identified etiology.
Lesch Nyahm SyndromeID symptoms of cerebral palsy, self injurous behaviors, nail and lipbiting, over production of uric acid.
X linked recessive disordertypically affect males, females have an additional X chromosone to balance.
Phenylketonuria (PKU)cannot break down phenylalanine, amino acid found in some foods, results in ID when individual eats phenylalanine and it accumulates, tests at birth can detect PKU > diets without Phenylalanine actually prevent development of intellectual disability and other problems.
Down syndromemost common chromosocal cause of ID, extra 21st chromosome (trisomy 21) low muscle tone, flat facial features, upward slant eyes, abnormally small ears, single deam crease across center of palm, hyperflexibility, extra space between big toe and second toe, enlarged tongue tends to stick out. Higher risk with advanced maternal age, detetable with some prenatal tests (amniocentesis, CVS, mother's blood tests, test do not indicate severity of impairment, 1 in 4 monthers elects to terminate pregnancy.)
Fragile X Syndromelearning disabilities, hyperactivity, short attentional span, gaze avoicance, perserverative speech, primary in males, women with fragile X have mild symptoms.
cultural-familialID refered to ID influenced by social enciromental factors such as Abuse, neglect, social deprication, these factors likely to interact with biological factors.
ID treamingsevere-similar to autism treatment mild- similar to learning disorders goals are similar across severity, level of assitance differs. Behavioral intervention teaches (basic skills, social skills, practical skills.) goals- participate in community, benefit from education, hold job/volunteer, build meaningful relationships.
Pevention of neurodevelopmental disordersefforts still in early stages, head start programs (education,medical,nutritional, and social support.) Future directions - genetic screening, detection and correction, prenatal gene therapy.