Abnormal Psych study Exam 1

auroradye's version from 2016-10-14 06:32

Exam 1

Question Answer
The 4 DsDysfunction interferes with functioning of life, Danger, Deviant, Distress
Nature of change for therapy and treatmenttherapy is more effective over the long run than treatment using medicine alone.
Top 2 most commonly diagnosed mental illnesses todayDepression and Anxiety
father of modern medicineHippocrates. He had a medical model and thought disease was caused by natural events – he’s known as
Ancient Greeks and Romansincluded Plato and Aristotle, and Hippocrates. Thought psychology and philosophy were tied together still, and thought illness had natural causes, such as too much blood
ancient greeks and romans Time500 BC-500 AD
Etiology ancient greeks and romansimbalance of humors, or disease state.
4 humors were1. Yellow bile 2. Black bile 3. Blood 4. Phlegm Treatments: Music, massage, exercise, good food, fresh air, conversation, celibacy, bleeding
Dark ages Time500 AD-1350 AD
Time of renaissance1400-1700
father of psychopathologyJohannes Wayer the 1st doctor to specialize in mental psychology. He thought the mind was vulnerable to disease, just like the body was. You could catch a mental disorder like you catch a cold. Also, the mind was thought of as something real, an organ like your heart, liver, or spleen.
Difference between psychotic function and neurotic functionpsychotic function is not grounded in reality, and neurotic function is grounded in and connected to reality.
the father of American PsychiatryBenjamin Rush, a good physician, tried to help people. Spread moral treatment. He used a restraint chair to calm down raving patients, and to help blood flow return to the brain.
the Bethlehem Hospitalestablished in 1500’s, its philosophy was humane, moral treatment, Godliness, and goodness. However, it became overcrowded and underfunded, and became a dumping ground for people. The people living there did not have their needs met, and many were horrifically abused and neglected. It got so chaotic there they started calling it bedlam – meaning chaotic and unholy
William Tuke wasa Quaker reformer who thought good treatment for mental illness was putting the person in the good environment of a God fearing household.
“York Treatment” wasputting patients into replicas of Quaker homes and trying to restore them to health by treating them with good food, hard work, prayer, conversation, and fresh air.
Moral treatment what and when19th century approach emphasizing humane and respectful treatment of patients.
Dorothea DixAmerican reformer who made moral treatment a public concern in U.S. She helped get laws in place, and also set up state hospitals.
Hydrotherapyspraying the patient with water to stimulate them.
Wet Packwrapping patient in wet sheets to cool and restrain them.
Continuous Batha large, warm bath kept at body temperature to calm them.
Tooth Extractiontaking out the tooth sometimes worked because the infection in the bad tooth was causing the person to act crazy, and removing it healed them.
Tonsillectomyremoving tonsils. It sometimes worked for same reason as pulling teeth.
Lobotomycutting part of the brain
Other psychosurgeriesincluding split brain surgery, “windshield wiper swish” lobotomy, and DBS (Deep Brain Surgeries)
Somatogenic“soma” means body, and “genic” means start, so this perspective says mental illness begins as a body disease. There’s some early evidence supporting it EG Syphilis causes dementia in end stages.
Emil KraplinGerman researcher and big proponent of somatogenic perspective. Wrote book on it.
Psychogenic“psycho” means mind, and “genic” means start, so this perspective says mental illness is more psychological than anatomical. Mental illness is the result of something in the mind.
Father of hypnotismFreidrich Anton Mesmer He thought mental illness emerged from the mind. He’d treat them by having the patient in a dim room, jumping into the room in bright clothing, and doing a magic trick. He’d tap them with his hand, a feather, or a wand on the affected body part to “heal” them.· Placebo effect - they believed something would happen, so it did.
Maria Burnheim and Andus Agust Ceboltinvestigated the power of the brain and power of the subconscious to affect us.Studied how psychological blindness, deafness, and paralysis could be created in people thru persuasion.
Insulin therapyManfred Saco for schizophrenia. The insulin would drop the patients’ blood sugar, making them go into a coma and have a reaction. Reactions included lots of sweating and drooling in wet shock. Dry Shock was a total body seizure. shocking the patient with electricity to cause a full brain seizure. They would give them glucose to bring them out of the insulin-induced coma.
1st theoretical viewpoint wasSpirituality and Mysticism
2nd theoretical viewpoint wasmedical model (Ancient Greeks and Romans)
3rd theoretical viewpoint wasSpirituality and Mysticism (again)
When did moral treatment emerge?1800’s
Who is associated with moral treatment?Benjamin Rush, Dorothea Dix, and William Tuke
Where did moral treatment first emerge?Ancient Greeks and Romans
The dark ages was what?A revival of Spirituality and Mysticism
Renaissancechange, enlightenment, asylums
TrephinationWhat is it? to cut away part of the skull, allowing the spirit to exit the human host. Major cause death in trephination – infection
When did trephination come about?in time of Spirituality and Mysticism, in the Neolithic period, about 6,500 BC.
How to get rid of mental illness in terms of demonic possessionexorcism – process to get the spirit out. Can be anything from sprinkling holy water, to praying over them, to drinking bitter drinks, to torturing the person. Make the demon/spirit not want to remain in the host body.
What does the term “chemical imbalance” mean?Chemical Imbalance is today’s equivalent to the four humors. In a few moments you can induce a chemical imbalance in your brain, just by thinking about a really sad memory or by smiling.
Facial Feedback Hypothesischanging the expressions on your face causes chemical changes in your brain, altering your mood. If you smile, you feel happier.
What is the Psychoanalytic theoryFreud’s theory that mental illness. Also called psychodynamic theory, it focuses on how the unconscious pushes and drives your behavior.
stages of developmentPsychoanalytic theory. cause of mental illness is if something goes wrong in one of the stages. It also focuses on your relationship with your primary care giver as a child.
Was Freud’s theory biological, psychological, or somatogenic?psychological
What was deinstitutionalization?the emptying out of state hospitals. Went from 600,000 people in institutions to 70,000 today.
When was deinstitutionalization?1950’s
Why did deinstitutionalization occur?tricyclic medicines were discovered. They get their name from their 3 ring structure. Around the same time, major sedatives came out, including Haldol. Using these medications allowed the people to be better able to function and live on their own.
What is multicultural psychology?this perspective says we understand humans in the context of their individual cultural environment. They look at how race, ethnicity, gender, and other factors affect thought and behavior.
What is Examination?the clinician watching the patient to learn about them
What is the difference between true and pseudo experimentsabsolute necessity of true experiments is you must be able to address causation. Remember, correlation is NOT causation.
If you want to establish causation, what must you have?Ability to cause what you’re studying. You need a control group and an experimental group. The groups need to be equivalent before the experiment begins. You need to change the variables to affect the results.
What are case studies?detailed descriptions of a person’s life, facts about the, and their psychological problems. They try to maximize ideographic information (specific to the one person)
How correlation worksA correlation is a relationship of at least two variables that are related and function together. There are both positive correlations and negative correlations. Correlational studies can NOT ever make correlational statements.
EG of a Positive correlationrelationship between eating food and BMI – the more calories you eat, the more your BMI becomes. It’s a positive correlation because as one increases the other increases too. Both variables more in the same direction
EG of a Negative correlationrelationship between exercise and BMI – the more you exercise (if you are overweight and not trying to gain muscle mass), the less your BMI becomes. This is a negative correlation because as one variable increases, the other decreases.
What is an independent variable?the manipulated variable
What is a dependent variablethe variable expected to change as the independent variable is manipulated
What is a compounding (AKA extraneous variables) variable?we want to eliminate theses. They are variables other than the independent variable that might affect the dependent variable.
What is the control group?the group not exposed to the independent variable
What is the experimental group?the group exposed to the independent variable
-what is the difference between incidence and prevalence?incidence is the rate of new (or newly diagnosed) cases of disease and prevalence is the actual total number of live cases with the disease.
Who said there was no such thing as mental illness?Thomas Szasz. He thought the whole idea of mental illness was a myth and lie. According to him, “abnormal” behavior in society is just “problems in living.” He thought it was a construct made to control people.
Biological model says whatbiological anomalies are what leads to mental illness, such as the “schizophrenic mother” – the mom acting in a detached way towards the child caused the child to develop schizophrenia.
-Is disrupted hormones associated with hypothyroidism, leading to depression somatogenic vs psychogenic? somatogenic.
-Are potty training issues somatogenic or psychogenic?psychogenic
-What is ECT?Electro Convulsive Shock Therapy – send electricity through a person to cause all neurons in brain to fire at the same time. They sedate them first, and its used for people who have already failed several other forms of treatment like medication and therapy. (intended) effects – can help with some conditions like severe depression. Side effects – temporary memory loss, and brain damage
Psychosurgery – is it ethical or not?it depends. I think some of it is, like DBS and the windshield wiper swish lobotomy, but only in certain circumstances.
-Lots of questions on Freud – why?He started us paying attention to the unconscious, as well as introduced the notion that we need to treat children carefully so we don’t mess them up
know 3 components of psychodynamic theory Id, ego and superego
idanimalistic, wants everything it wants NOW. Sex and aggression are primary drives. With us from birth
Egomediates between the id and superego. Functions on principles of reality -
Superegothe “angel on your shoulder” – in direct contrast to the id. Age 5-6 years old.